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Sökning: WFRF:(Bergström Petra)

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1.
  • Wang, Gang, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of chronic bronchitis and risk factors in young adults : results from BAMSE
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 57:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis is associated with substantial morbidity among elderly adults, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in young adults. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and early life risk factors for chronic bronchitis in young adults. METHODS: Questionnaire data and clinical measures from the 24-year follow-up of the Swedish BAMSE cohort were used. We assessed chronic bronchitis (CB) as the combination of cough and mucus production in the morning during winter. Environmental and clinical data from birth and onwards were used for analyses of risk factors. RESULTS: At the 24-year follow-up, 75% (n=3064) participants completed the questionnaire and 2030 performed spirometry. The overall prevalence of CB was 5.5% (n=158) with similar estimates in males and females. Forty-nine percent of CB cases experienced more than 3 self-reported respiratory infections in the last year compared to 18% in non-CB subjects (p<0.001), and 37% of cases were current smokers (versus 19%). Statistically significant lower post-FEV(1)/FVC were observed in CB compared to non-CB subjects (mean z-score -0.06 versus 0.13, p=0.027). Daily smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio, aOR=3.85, p<0.001), air pollution exposure (black carbon during ages 1-4 years old, aOR=1.71 per 1 μg·m(3) increase, p=0.009) and exclusive breast-feeding during four months or more (aOR=0.66, p=0.044) were associated with CB. CONCLUSION: Chronic bronchitis in young adults is associated with recurrent respiratory infections. Besides smoking, our results support role of early life exposures, such as air pollution and exclusive breast-feeding, for respiratory health later in life.
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2.
  • Wang, Gang, et al. (författare)
  • Early-life risk factors for reversible and irreversible airflow limitation in young adults : findings from the BAMSE birth cohort.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We aimed to determine prevalence and early-life risk factors for reversible and irreversible airflow limitation in young adults from the general population. Among young adults in their 20s, the prevalence was 5.3% for reversible airflow limitation and 2.0% for irreversible airflow limitation. While parental asthma was the only risk factor for development of reversible airflow limitation, the risk factors for development of irreversible airflow limitation were current asthma, childhood respiratory tract infections and asthma, and exposure to air pollution.
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3.
  • Bodvik, Rasmus, et al. (författare)
  • Aggregation and network formation of aqueous methylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose solutions.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Colloids and Surfaces A. - : Elsevier. - 0927-7757 .- 1873-4359. ; 354:1-3, s. 162-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Solution properties of methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) have been investigated as a function of temperature and concentration using a broad range of experimental techniques. Novelties include the extensive comparison between MC and HPMC solutions as well as the combination of techniques, and the use of Cryo transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). The correlation between rheology and light scattering results clearly demonstrates the relation between viscosity change and aggregation. Cryo-TEM images show the network structures formed. Viscosity measurements show that for both MC and HPMC solutions sudden changes in viscosity occur as the temperature is increased. The onset temperature for these changes depends on polymer concentration and heating rate. For both MC and HPMC solutions the viscosity on cooling is very different compared to on heating, demonstrating the slow equilibration time. The viscosity changes in MC and HPMC solutions are dramatically different; for MC solutions the viscosity increases by several orders of magnitude when a critical temperature is reached, whereas for HPMC solutions the viscosity decreases abruptly at a given temperature, followed by an increase upon further heating. Light and (SAXS) small-angle X-ray scattering shows that the increase in viscosity, for MC as well as for HPMC solutions, is due to extensive aggregation of the polymers. Light scattering also provides information on aggregation kinetics. The SAXS measurements allow us to correlate aggregation hysteresis to the viscosity hysteresis, as well as to extract some structural information. Cryo-TEM images give novel information that a fibrillar network is formed in MC solutions, and the strong viscosity increase occurs when this network spans the whole solution volume. For HPMC solutions the behaviour is more complex. The decrease in viscosity can be related to the formation of compact objects, and the subsequent increase to formation of fibrillar structures, which are more linear and less entangled than for MC.
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4.
  • Fransson, Emma, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring salivary cortisol and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents living in two homes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychology. - 2050-7283. ; 2:1, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Each year, around 50.000 children in Sweden experience a separation between their parents. Joint physical custody (JPC), where the child alternates homes between the parents for about equal amount of time, has become a common living arrangement after parental separation. Children in two homes could benefit from everyday contact with both parents and access to both parents' financial resources. However, children could experience stress from being constantly moving and potentially exposed to parental conflicts. Still, studies on JPC and biological functioning related to stress, are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate how living arrangements (intact family/JPC) relate to HPA-axis activity and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents.METHODS: Mid-adolescents (106 girls and 51 boys) provided demographic details, self-reports of recurrent pain (headache, stomachache, neck/shoulder and back pain) and salivary samples. Salivary cortisol samples were collected: 1) immediately at awakening, 2) +30 minutes, 3) +60 minutes, and 4) at 8 p.m. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) was computed using an established formula. Additionally, the diurnal decline between the waking and 8 p.m. samples was computed.RESULTS: Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that living arrangements (intact family/JPC) was not associated with morning cortisol (CAR), the diurnal cortisol decline or with recurrent pain. However, sex was a significant predictor of both cortisol measures and recurrent pain with girls exhibiting a higher cortisol awakening response and a greater diurnal decline value as well as reporting more recurrent pain than did boys.CONCLUSIONS: Living arrangements were not associated with HPA-axis activity or recurrent pain in this group of well-functioning mid-adolescents. Although this study is the first to investigate how living arrangements relate to HPA-axis functioning and additional studies are needed, the tentative findings suggest that these mid-adolescents have adapted to their living arrangements and that other factors play a more pertinent role for HPA-functioning and subjective health.
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5.
  • Norman, M., et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Year of Birth and 1-Year Survival Among Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden During 2004-2007 and 2014-2016
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association. - Chicago, IL, United States : American Medical Association. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 321:12, s. 1188-1199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Since 2004-2007, national guidelines and recommendations have been developed for the management of extremely preterm births in Sweden. If and how more uniform management has affected infant survival is unknown. OBJECTIVE To compare survival of extremely preterm infants born during 2004-2007 with survival of infants born during 2014-2016. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS All births at 22-26weeks' gestational age (n = 2205) between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, and between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016, in Sweden were studied. Prospective data collection was used during 2004-2007. Data were obtained from the Swedish pregnancy, medical birth, and neonatal quality registries during 2014-2016. EXPOSURES Delivery at 22-26 weeks' gestational age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcomewas infant survival to the age of 1 year. The secondary outcome was 1-year survival among live-born infants who did not have any major neonatal morbidity (specifically, without intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3-4, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity stage 3-5, or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia). RESULTS During 2004-2007, 1009 births (3.3/1000 of all births) occurred at 22-26 weeks' gestational age compared with 1196 births (3.4/1000 of all births) during 2014-2016 (P =.61). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (497 of 705 infants [70%]) than during 2014-2016 (711 of 923 infants [77%]) (difference, -7%[95% CI, -11% to -2.2%], P =.003). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age and without any major neonatal morbidity was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (226 of 705 infants [32%]) than during 2014-2016 (355 of 923 infants [38%]) (difference, -6%[95% CI, -11% to -1.7%], P =.008). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among live births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age in Sweden, 1-year survival improved between 2004-2007 and 2014-2016.
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6.
  • von Otter, Malin, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Nrf2-encoding NFE2L2 haplotypes influence disease progression but not risk in Alzheimer's disease and age-related cataract.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Mechanisms of ageing and development. - : Elsevier. - 1872-6216 .- 0047-6374. ; 131:2, s. 105-110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related cataract, disorders characterized by protein aggregation causing late-onset disease, both involve oxidative stress. We hypothesize that common variants of NFE2L2 and KEAP1, the genes encoding the main regulators of the Nrf2 system, an important defence system against oxidative stress, may influence risk of AD and/or age-related cataract. This case-control study combines an AD material (725 cases and 845 controls), and a cataract material (489 cases and 182 controls). Genetic variation in NFE2L2 and KEAP1 was tagged by eight and three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively. Single SNPs and haplotypes were analyzed for associations with disease risk, age parameters, MMSE and AD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. NFE2L2 and KEAP1 were not associated with risk of AD or cataract. However, one haplotype allele of NFE2L2 was associated with 2 years earlier age at AD onset (p(c)=0.013) and 4 years earlier age at surgery for posterior subcapsular cataract (p(c)=0.019). Another haplotype of NFE2L2 was associated with 4 years later age at surgery for cortical cataract (p(c)=0.009). Our findings do not support NFE2L2 or KEAP1 as susceptibility genes for AD or cataract. However, common variants of the NFE2L2 gene may affect disease progression, potentially altering clinically recognized disease onset.
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7.
  • Agholme, Lotta, et al. (författare)
  • Low-dose γ-secretase inhibition increases secretion of Aβ peptides and intracellular oligomeric Aβ.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Molecular and cellular neurosciences. - 1095-9327. ; 85, s. 211-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • γ-Secretase inhibitors have been considered promising drug candidates against Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to their ability to reduce amyloid-β (Aβ) production. However, clinical trials have been halted due to lack of clinical efficacy and/or side effects. Recent in vitro studies suggest that low doses of γ-secretase inhibitors may instead increase Aβ production. Using a stem cell-derived human model of cortical neurons and low doses of the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, the effects on a variety of Aβ peptides were studied using mass spectrometry. One major focus was to develop a novel method for specific detection of oligomeric Aβ (oAβ), and this was used to study the effects of low-dose γ-secretase inhibitor treatment on intracellular oAβ accumulation. Low-dose treatment (2 and 20nM) with DAPT increased the secretion of several Aβ peptides, especially Aβx-42. Furthermore, using the novel method for oAβ detection, we found that 2nM DAPT treatment of cortical neurons resulted in increased oAβ accumulation. Thus, low dose-treatment with DAPT causes both increased production of long, aggregation-prone Aβ peptides and accumulation of intracellular Aβ oligomers, both believed to contribute to AD pathology.
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8.
  • Bergström, Helena, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • "Jag är inte diktator, jag är också mamma" : om föräldrastöd och föräldraansvar kring barns fetma och övervikt
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Barn. - Trondheim : NAVF's Senter for Barneforskning. - 0800-1669. ; :4, s. 41-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • I Sverige liksom i många andra länder har barns övervikt och fetma ökat. Ett sätt att motverka denna problematik är stöd riktat till föräldrar. Föräldrar anses ha en central betydelse för barns matvanor och fysiska aktivitet och stöd och råd till föräldrar poängterar gränssättning, uppmuntran och att föräldern ska fungera som en förebild för barnet. Genom intervjuer med föräldrar till barn med övervikt/fetma visar denna artikel hur föräldrar hanterar råd och anvisningar i sitt dagliga liv. Det visar sig att föräldrarna står inför ett komplext dilemma som innebär att de beaktar såväl fysisk som psykisk hälsa samt den vardagliga förhandlingen mellan föräldrar och barn. Sett ur ett omsorgsetiskt perspektiv utmanas idén om en rationell förälder som handlar i enlighet med kunskaper om vad som är en hälsosam livsstil. Föräldraskap innebär mycket mer än att kontrollera barnets vikt och sätta gränser.
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9.
  • Bergström, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Wind power in cold climates : Ice mapping methods
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the Vindforsk V-313 project “Vindkraft i kallt klimat” the goal was to arrive at a methodology to construct a high resolution (1x1 km2) climatology of icing on wind power turbines. This is a very demanding task since observations of icing on instruments have only been routinely available in Sweden during three winter seasons and at a dozen locations. The term climatology in classical meteorology means statistics over 30 years of data, and usually in the form of direct or indirect measurements. Examples are mean temperatures (annual, monthly, maximum etc.), number of frost days, growing season, variability, number of days of precipitation, mean winds, cloudiness, solar radiation, to name a few.In the project researchers from Uppsala University, WeatherTech Scandinavia, and SMHI have been collaborating. Observations have been analysed and state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models have been applied in case studies and tested in several sensitivity studies. Extensive model verification has been carried out. Modelled ice load and estimated production losses were also compared to measurements. The question of how to arrive at a method using only a few years to represent the long-term climatology was addressed and several methods were tested.The project has shed light on the uncertainties in modelling ice load and icing climate. The end results not only depend on which mesoscale model that is used but also on how the model is set up. In order to improve the models more accurate measurements of ice load is needed. Observations of liquid cloud water content and droplet size distributions could also be of significant value to better understand why the ice load models fail in capturing the observed ice load.
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10.
  • Bergström, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid precursor protein expression and processing are differentially regulated during cortical neuron differentiation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its cleavage product amyloid beta (A beta) have been thoroughly studied in Alzheimer's disease. However, APP also appears to be important for neuronal development. Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) towards cortical neurons enables in vitro mechanistic studies on human neuronal development. Here, we investigated expression and proteolytic processing of APP during differentiation of human iPSCs towards cortical neurons over a 100-day period. APP expression remained stable during neuronal differentiation, whereas APP processing changed. alpha-Cleaved soluble APP (sAPP alpha) was secreted early during differentiation, from neuronal progenitors, while beta-cleaved soluble APP (sAPP beta) was first secreted after deep-layer neurons had formed. Short A beta peptides, including A beta 1-15/16, peaked during the progenitor stage, while processing shifted towards longer peptides, such as A beta 1-40/42, when post-mitotic neurons appeared. This indicates that APP processing is regulated throughout differentiation of cortical neurons and that amyloidogenic APP processing, as reflected by A beta 1-40/42, is associated with mature neuronal phenotypes.
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