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Sökning: WFRF:(Bertram Lars)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 63
  • [1]234567Nästa
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1.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
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2.
  • Karalija, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • A common polymorphism in the dopamine transporter gene predicts working memory performance and in vivo dopamine integrity in aging
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Academic Press. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dopamine (DA) integrity is suggested as a potential cause of individual differences in working memory (WM) performance among older adults. Still, the principal dopaminergic mechanisms giving rise to WM differences remain unspecified. Here, 61 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, located in or adjacent to various dopamine-related genes, were assessed for their links to WM performance in a sample of 1313 adults aged 61–80 years from the Berlin Aging Study II. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression was conducted to estimate associations between polymorphisms and WM. Rs40184 in the DA transporter gene, SLC6A3, showed allelic group differences in WM, with T-carriers performing better than C homozygotes (p<0.01). This finding was replicated in an independent sample from the Cognition, Brain, and Aging study (COBRA; baseline: n = 181, ages: 64–68 years; 5-year follow up: n = 129). In COBRA, in vivo DA integrity was measured with 11C-raclopride and positron emission tomography. Notably, WM as well as in vivo DA integrity was higher for rs40184 T-carriers at baseline (p<0.05 for WM and caudate and hippocampal D2-receptor availability) and at the 5-year follow-up (p<0.05 for WM and hippocampal D2 availability). Our findings indicate that individual differences in DA transporter function contribute to differences in WM performance in old age, presumably by regulating DA availability.
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3.
  • Nikpay, Majid, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive 1000 Genomes-based genome-wide association meta-analysis of coronary artery disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 47:10, s. 1121-1121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Existing knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is largely based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of common SNPs. Leveraging phased haplotypes from the 1000 Genomes Project, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of similar to 185,000 CAD cases and controls, interrogating 6.7 million common (minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.05) and 2.7 million low-frequency (0.005 < MAF < 0.05) variants. In addition to confirming most known CAD-associated loci, we identified ten new loci (eight additive and two recessive) that contain candidate causal genes newly implicating biological processes in vessel walls. We observed intralocus allelic heterogeneity but little evidence of low-frequency variants with larger effects and no evidence of synthetic association. Our analysis provides a comprehensive survey of the fine genetic architecture of CAD, showing that genetic susceptibility to this common disease is largely determined by common SNPs of small effect size.
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4.
  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557 .- 1931-7565. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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5.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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6.
  • Bellander, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Lower baseline performance but greater plasticity of working memory for carriers of the val allele of the comt val158met polymorphism
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychology. - 0894-4105 .- 1931-1559. ; 29:2, s. 247-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Little is known about genetic contributions to individual differences in cognitive plasticity. Given that the neurotransmitter dopamine is critical for cognition and associated with cognitive plasticity, we investigated the effects of 3 polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes (LMX1A, DRD2, COMT) on baseline performance and plasticity of working memory (WM), perceptual speed, and reasoning. Method: One hundred one younger and 103 older adults underwent approximately 100 days of cognitive training, and extensive testing before and after training. We analyzed the baseline and posttest data using latent change score models. Results: For working memory, carriers of the val allele of the COMT polymorphism had lower baseline performance and larger performance gains from training than carriers of the met allele. There was no significant effect of the other genes or on other cognitive domains. Conclusions: We relate this result to available evidence indicating that met carriers perform better than val carriers in WM tasks taxing maintenance, whereas val carriers perform better at updating tasks. We suggest that val carriers may show larger training gains because updating operations carry greater potential for plasticity than maintenance operations.
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7.
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8.
  • Ghisletta, Paolo, et al. (författare)
  • The Val/Met Polymorphism of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Gene Predicts Decline in Perceptual Speed in Older Adults
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Psychology and Aging. - 0882-7974 .- 1939-1498. ; 29:2, s. 384-392
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, and contributes to learning and memory. We investigated whether a common Val66Met missense polymorphism (rs6265) of the BDNF gene is associated with individual differences in cognitive decline (marked by perceptual speed) in old age. A total of 376 participants of the Berlin Aging Study, with a mean age of 83.9 years at first occasion, were assessed longitudinally up to 11 times across more than 13 years on the Digit-Letter task. Met carriers (n = 123, 34%) showed steeper linear decline than Val homozygotes (n = 239, 66%); the corresponding contrast explained 2.20% of the variance in change in the entire sample, and 3.41% after excluding individuals at risk for dementia. These effects were not moderated by sex or socioeconomic status. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that normal aging magnifies the effects of common genetic variation on cognitive functioning.
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9.
  • Giedraitis, Vilmantas, et al. (författare)
  • CALHM1 P86L polymorphism does not alter amyloid-beta or tau in cerebrospinal fluid
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - 0304-3940 .- 1872-7972. ; 469:2, s. 265-267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, the P86L alteration in CALHM1 (calcium homeostasis modulator-1) was reported to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, the risk allele increased amyloid-beta (A beta) levels in conditioned media from cultured cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that CALHM1 P86L may modulate A beta or tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Nearly 200 individuals with AD or other cognitive disorders were included for CSF analysis and CALHM1 genotyping. No significant differences in CSF levels of A beta 42, tau or phospho-tau were found across the various CALHM1 genotypes. In conclusion, we found no evidence that CALHM1 P86L is associated with altered CSF levels of the investigated AD biomarkers.
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10.
  • Grydeland, Håkon, et al. (författare)
  • Self-reported sleep relates to microstructural hippocampal decline in beta-amyloid positive Adults beyond genetic risk
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Sleep. - : Oxford University Press. - 0161-8105 .- 1550-9109. ; 44:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Objectives: A critical role linking sleep with memory decay and beta-amyloid (A beta) accumulation, two markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, may be played by hippocampal integrity. We tested the hypotheses that worse self-reported sleep relates to decline in memory and intra-hippocampal microstructure, including in the presence of A beta.Methods: Two-hundred and forty-three cognitively healthy participants, aged 19-81 years, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index once, and two diffusion tensor imaging sessions, on average 3 years apart, allowing measures of decline in intra-hippocampal microstructure as indexed by increased mean diffusivity. We measured memory decay at each imaging session using verbal delayed recall. One session of positron emission tomography, in 108 participants above 44 years of age, yielded 23 A beta positive. Genotyping enabled control for APOE epsilon 4 status, and polygenic scores for sleep and AD, respectively.Results: Worse global sleep quality and sleep efficiency related to more rapid reduction of hippocampal microstructure over time. Focusing on efficiency (the percentage of time in bed at night spent asleep), the relation was stronger in presence of A beta accumulation, and hippocampal integrity decline mediated the relation with memory decay. The results were not explained by genetic risk for sleep efficiency or AD.Conclusions: Worse sleep efficiency related to decline in hippocampal microstructure, especially in the presence of A beta accumulation, and A beta might link poor sleep and memory decay. As genetic risk did not account for the associations, poor sleep efficiency might constitute a risk marker for AD, although the driving causal mechanisms remain unknown.
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