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Sökning: WFRF:(Bezard Erwan)

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  • Bastide, Matthieu F, et al. (författare)
  • Pathophysiology of L-dopa-induced motor and non-motor complications in Parkinson's disease.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Progress in Neurobiology. - : Elsevier. - 1873-5118. ; 132:Jul 21, s. 96-168
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Involuntary movements, or dyskinesia, represent a debilitating complication of levodopa (L-dopa) therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) are ultimately experienced by the vast majority of patients. In addition, psychiatric conditions often manifested as compulsive behaviours, are emerging as a serious problem in the management of L-dopa therapy. The present review attempts to provide an overview of our current understanding of dyskinesia and other L-dopa-induced dysfunctions, a field that dramatically evolved in the past twenty years. In view of the extensive literature on LID, there appeared a critical need to re-frame the concepts, to highlight the most suitable models, to review the central nervous system (CNS) circuitry that may be involved, and to propose a pathophysiological framework was timely and necessary. An updated review to clarify our understanding of LID and other L-dopa-related side effects was therefore timely and necessary. This review should help in the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing the generation of dyskinetic symptoms.
  • Bezard, Erwan, et al. (författare)
  • Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease: Limits and Relevance to Neuroprotection Studies
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0885-3185. ; 28:1, s. 61-70
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over the last two decades, significant strides has been made toward acquiring a better knowledge of both the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Experimental models are of paramount importance to obtain greater insights into the pathogenesis of the disease. Thus far, neurotoxin-based animal models have been the most popular tools employed to produce selective neuronal death in both in vitro and in vivo systems. These models have been commonly referred to as the pathogenic models. The current trend in modeling PD revolves around what can be called the disease gene-based models or etiologic models. The value of utilizing multiple models with a different mechanism of insult rests on the premise that dopamine-producing neurons die by stereotyped cascades that can be activated by a range of insults, from neurotoxins to downregulation and overexpression of disease-related genes. In this position article, we present the relevance of both pathogenic and etiologic models as well as the concept of clinically relevant designs that, we argue, should be utilized in the preclinical development phase of new neuroprotective therapies before embarking into clinical trials. (C) 2012 Movement Disorder Society
  • Bezard, Erwan, et al. (författare)
  • Anti-dyskinetic effect of anpirtoline in animal models of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Research. - : Elsevier. - 0168-0102. ; 77:4, s. 242-246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The serotonin system has emerged as a potential target for anti-dyskinetic therapy in Parkinson's disease. In fact, serotonin neurons can convert L-DOPA into dopamine, and mediate its synaptic release. However, they lack a feedback control mechanism able to regulate synaptic dopamine levels, which leads to un-physiological stimulation of post-synaptic striatal dopamine receptors. Accordingly, drugs able to dampen the activity of serotonin neurons can suppress L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Here, we investigated the ability of the 5-HT1A/1B receptor agonist anpirtoline to counteract LDOPA-induced dyskinesia in L-DOPA-primed 6-OHDA-lesioned rats and MPTP-treated macaques. Results suggest that anpirtoline dose-dependently reduced dyskinesia both in rats and monkeys; however, the effect in MPTP-treated macaques was accompanied by a worsening of the Parkinson's disease score at significantly effective doses (1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg). At a lower dose (0.75 mg/ kg), anpirtoline markedly reduced dyskinesia in 4 out of 5 subjects, but statistical significance was prevented by the presence of a non-responsive subject. These results provide further evidence that the serotonin neurons contribute both to the pro-dyskinetic effect of L-DOPA and to its therapeutic efficacy in the rat and monkey models of Parkinson's disease. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.
  • Bezard, Erwan, et al. (författare)
  • mu Opioid Receptor Agonism for L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience. - : SOC NEUROSCIENCE. - 0270-6474 .- 1529-2401. ; 40:35, s. 6812-6819
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by severe locomotor deficits and is commonly treated with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA, but its prolonged usage causes dyskinesias referred to as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Several studies in animal models of PD have suggested that dyskinesias are associated with a heightened opioid cotransmitter tone, observations that have led to the notion of a LID-related hyperactive opioid transmission that should be corrected by mu opioid receptor antagonists. Reports that both antagonists and agonists of the mu opioid receptor may alleviate LID severity in primate models of PD and LID, together with the failure of nonspecific antagonist to improve LID in pilot clinical trials in patients, raises doubt about the reliability of the available data on the opioid system in PD and LID. After in vitro characterization of the functional activity at the mu opioid receptor, we selected prototypical agonists, antagonists, and partial agonists at the mu opioid receptor. We then showed that both oral and discrete intracerebral administration of a mu receptor agonist, but not of an antagonist as long thought, ameliorated LIDs in the gold-standard bilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinelesioned female macaque model of PD and LID. The results call for a reappraisal of opioid pharmacology in the basal ganglia as well as for the development of brain nucleus-targeted mu opioid receptor agonists.
  • Bezard, Erwan, et al. (författare)
  • Study of the antidyskinetic effect of eltoprazine in animal models of levodopa-induced dyskinesia
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0885-3185. ; 28:8, s. 1088-1096
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT]) system has recently emerged as an important player in the appearance of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa [l-dopa])-induced dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease. In fact, dopamine released as a false transmitter from serotonin neurons appears to contribute to the pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors, leading to the appearance of the abnormal involuntary movements. Thus, drugs able to dampen the activity of serotonin neurons hold promise for the treatment of dyskinesia. The authors investigated the ability of the mixed 5-HT 1A/1B receptor agonist eltoprazine to counteract l-dopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaques. The data demonstrated that eltoprazine is extremely effective in suppressing dyskinesia in experimental models, although this effect was accompanied by a partial worsening of the therapeutic effect of l-dopa. Interestingly, eltoprazine was found to (synergistically) potentiate the antidyskinetic effect of amantadine. The current data indicated that eltoprazine is highly effective in counteracting dyskinesia in preclinical models. However, the partial worsening of the l-dopa effect observed after eltoprazine administration represents a concern; whether this side effect is due to a limitation of the animal models or to an intrinsic property of eltoprazine needs to be addressed in ongoing clinical trials. The data also suggest that the combination of low doses of eltoprazine with amantadine may represent a valid strategy to increase the antidyskinetic effect and reduce the eltoprazine-induced worsening of l-dopa therapeutic effects. (c) 2013 Movement Disorder Society
  • Bourdenx, Mathieu, et al. (författare)
  • Abnormal structure-specific peptide transmission and processing in a primate model of Parkinson's disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Disease. - 0969-9961 .- 1095-953X. ; 62, s. 307-312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A role for enhanced peptidergic transmission, either opioidergic or not, has been proposed for the generation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) on the basis of in situ hybridization studies showing that striatal peptidergic precursor expression consistently correlates with LID severity. Few studies, however, have focused on the actual peptides derived from these precursors. We used mass-spectrometry to study peptide profiles in the putamen and globus pallidus (internalis and externalis) collected from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4,6-tetrahydropyridine treated macaque monkeys, acutely or chronically treated with L-DOPA. We identified that parkinsonian and dyskinetic states are associated with an abnormal production of proenkephalin-, prodynorphin- and protachykinin-1-derived peptides in both segments of the globus pallidus. Moreover, we report that peptidergic processing is dopamine-state dependent and highly structure-specific, possibly explaining the failure of previous clinical trials attempting to rectify abnormal peptidergic transmission.
  • Fasano, Stefania, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of Ras-guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1 (Ras-GRF1) signaling in the striatum reverts motor symptoms associated with L-dopa-induced dyskinesia.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 107, s. 21824-21829
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • l-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a common debilitating complication of dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease. Recent evidence suggests that LID may be linked causally to a hyperactivation of the Ras-ERK signaling cascade in the basal ganglia. We set out to determine whether specific targeting of Ras-guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1 (Ras-GRF1), a brain-specific activator of the Ras-ERK pathway, may provide a therapy for LID. On the rodent abnormal involuntary movements scale, Ras-GRF1-deficient mice were significantly resistant to the development of dyskinesia during chronic l-dopa treatment. Furthermore, in a nonhuman primate model of LID, lentiviral vectors expressing dominant negative forms of Ras-GRF1 caused a dramatic reversion of dyskinesia severity leaving intact the therapeutic effect of l-dopa. These data reveal the central role of Ras-GRF1 in governing striatal adaptations to dopamine replacement therapy and validate a viable treatment for LID based on intracellular signaling modulation.
  • Fridjonsdottir, Elva, et al. (författare)
  • Mass spectrometry imaging identifies abnormally elevated brain L-DOPA levels and extrastriatal monoaminergic dysregulation in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - : AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE. - 2375-2548. ; 7:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • L-DOPA treatment for Parkinson's disease frequently leads to dyskinesias, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. We used MALDI-MSI to map the distribution of L-DOPA and monoaminergic pathways in brains of dyskinetic and nondyskinetic primates. We report elevated levels of L-DOPA, and its metabolite 3-O-methyldopa, in all measured brain regions of dyskinetic animals and increases in dopamine and metabolites in all regions analyzed except the striatum. In dyskinesia, dopamine levels correlated well with L-DOPA levels in extrastriatal regions, such as hippocampus, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and cortical areas, but not in the striatum. Our results demonstrate that L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is linked to a dysregulation of L-DOPA metabolism throughout the brain. The inability of extrastriatal brain areas to regulate the formation of dopamine during L-DOPA treatment introduces the potential of dopamine or even L-DOPA itself to modulate neuronal signaling widely across the brain, resulting in unwanted side effects.
  • Fridjonsdottir, Elva, et al. (författare)
  • Mass spectrometry imaging reveals brain-region specific changes in metabolism and acetylcholine levels in experimental Parkinson’s disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • There is evidence that cholinergic alterations are linked to various motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. We therefore used mass spectrometry imaging to investigate regional changes in acetylcholine abundance in the brain of a non-human primate model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). We also present an experimental design for performing untargeted analysis using MALDI-MSI with multiple experiments incorporating quality control samples to monitor experimental variability. We observed that MPTP treatment (i) led to reductions in putaminal acetylcholine levels that persisted after L-DOPA treatment and (ii) appeared to induce a shift of choline metabolism from α-glycerophosphocholine towards betaine. LID animals exhibited reduced levels of various metabolites important for brain homeostasis including S-adenosylmethionine, glutathione, adenosine monophosphate, and acylcarnitines. The vasculature marker heme B was upregulated in the putamen of LID animals, suggesting increased blood-flow in the dyskinetic putamen. These results provide new insights into pathological choline-related metabolic changes in PD and LID.  
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