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  • Ching, C. R. K., et al. (författare)
  • What we learn about bipolar disorder from large-scale neuroimaging: Findings and future directions from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MRI-derived brain measures offer a link between genes, the environment and behavior and have been widely studied in bipolar disorder (BD). However, many neuroimaging studies of BD have been underpowered, leading to varied results and uncertainty regarding effects. The Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Bipolar Disorder Working Group was formed in 2012 to empower discoveries, generate consensus findings and inform future hypothesis-driven studies of BD. Through this effort, over 150 researchers from 20 countries and 55 institutions pool data and resources to produce the largest neuroimaging studies of BD ever conducted. The ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group applies standardized processing and analysis techniques to empower large-scale meta- and mega-analyses of multimodal brain MRI and improve the replicability of studies relating brain variation to clinical and genetic data. Initial BD Working Group studies reveal widespread patterns of lower cortical thickness, subcortical volume and disrupted white matter integrity associated with BD. Findings also include mapping brain alterations of common medications like lithium, symptom patterns and clinical risk profiles and have provided further insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of BD. Here we discuss key findings from the BD working group, its ongoing projects and future directions for large-scale, collaborative studies of mental illness.
  • Bilderbeck, Amy C., et al. (författare)
  • Psychoeducation and online mood tracking for patients with bipolar disorder : A randomised controlled trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 205, s. 245-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Psychoeducation is an effective adjunct to medications in bipolar disorder (BD). Brief psychoeducational approaches have been shown to improve early identification of relapse. However, the optimal method of delivery of psychoeducation remains uncertain. Here, our objective was to compare a short therapist-facilitated vs. self-directed psychoeducational intervention for BD. Methods: BD outpatients who were receiving medication-based treatment were randomly assigned to 5 psychoeducation sessions administered by a therapist (Facilitated Integrated Mood Management; FIMM; n=60), or self-administered psychoeducation (Manualized Integrated Mood Management; MIMM; n=61). Follow-up was based on patients' weekly responses to an electronic mood monitoring programme over 12 months. Results: Over follow-up, there were no group differences in weekly self-rated depression symptoms or relapse/readmission rates. However, knowledge of BD (assessed with the Oxford Bipolar Knowledge questionnaire (OBQ)) was greater in the FIMM than the MIMM group at 3 months. Greater illness knowledge at 3 months was related to a higher proportion of weeks well over 12 months. Limitations: Features of the trial may have reduced the sensitivity to our psychoeducation approach, including that BD participants had been previously engaged in self-monitoring. Conclusions: Improved OBQ score, while accelerated by a short course of therapist-administered psychoeducation (FIMM), was seen after both treatments. It was associated with better outcome assessed as weeks well. When developing and testing a new psychosocial intervention, studies should consider proximal outcomes (e.g., acquired knowledge) and their short-term impact on illness course in bipolar disorder. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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