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  • Zhu, Changlian, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein reduces oxidative stress after cerebral irradiation or hypoxia-ischemia through up-regulation of mitochondrial antioxidants.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The European journal of neuroscience. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 1460-9568 .- 0953-816X. ; 26:12, s. 3402-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We demonstrate that X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) counteracts oxidative stress in two essentially different disease-related models of brain injury, hypoxia-ischemia and irradiation, as judged by lower expression of nitrotyrosine (5-fold) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (10-fold) in XIAP-overexpressing compared with wild-type mice. XIAP overexpression induced up-regulation of at least three antioxidants residing in mitochondria, superoxide dismutase 2, thioredoxin 2 and lysine oxoglutarate reductase. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria was reduced in XIAP-overexpressing mice. Hence, in addition to blocking caspases, XIAP can regulate reactive oxygen species in the brain, at least partly through up-regulation of mitochondrial antioxidants. XIAP-induced prevention of oxidative stress was not secondary to tissue protection because although XIAP overexpression provides tissue protection after hypoxia-ischemia, it does not prevent tissue loss after irradiation. This is a previously unknown role of XIAP and may provide the basis for development of novel protective strategies for both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, where oxidative stress is an integral component of the injury mechanisms involved.
  • Curtis, Maurice A, et al. (författare)
  • Human neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb via a lateral ventricular extension.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 1095-9203. ; 315:5816, s. 1243-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is the main pathway by which newly born subventricular zone cells reach the olfactory bulb (OB) in rodents. However, the RMS in the adult human brain has been elusive. We demonstrate the presence of a human RMS, which is unexpectedly organized around a lateral ventricular extension reaching the OB, and illustrate the neuroblasts in it. The RMS ensheathing the lateral olfactory ventricular extension, as seen by magnetic resonance imaging, cell-specific markers, and electron microscopy, contains progenitor cells with migratory characteristics and cells that incorporate 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and become mature neurons in the OB.
  • Nyholm, T., et al. (författare)
  • A national approach for automated collection of standardized and population-based radiation therapy data in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0167-8140 .- 1879-0887. ; 119:2, s. 344-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To develop an infrastructure for structured and automated collection of interoperable radiation therapy (RT) data into a national clinical quality registry. Materials and methods: The present study was initiated in 2012 with the participation of seven of the 15 hospital departments delivering RT in Sweden. A national RT nomenclature and a database for structured unified storage of RT data at each site (Medical Information Quality Archive, MIQA) have been developed. Aggregated data from the MIQA databases are sent to a national RT registry located on the same IT platform (INCA) as the national clinical cancer registries. Results: The suggested naming convention has to date been integrated into the clinical workflow at 12 of 15 sites, and MIQA is installed at six of these. Involvement of the remaining 3/15 RT departments is ongoing, and they are expected to be part of the infrastructure by 2016. RT data collection from ARIA (R), Mosaiq (R), Eclipse (TM), and Oncentra (R) is supported. Manual curation of RT-structure information is needed for approximately 10% of target volumes, but rarely for normal tissue structures, demonstrating a good compliance to the RT nomenclature. Aggregated dose/volume descriptors are calculated based on the information in MIQA and sent to INCA using a dedicated service (MIQA2INCA). Correct linkage of data for each patient to the clinical cancer registries on the INCA platform is assured by the unique Swedish personal identity number. Conclusions: An infrastructure for structured and automated prospective collection of syntactically inter operable RT data into a national clinical quality registry for RT data is under implementation. Future developments include adapting MIQA to other treatment modalities (e.g. proton therapy and brachytherapy) and finding strategies to harmonize structure delineations. How the RT registry should comply with domain-specific ontologies such as the Radiation Oncology Ontology (ROO) is under discussion.
  • Ask, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • The potential of proton beam radiation therapy in head and neck cancer.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - : Taylor & Francis. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 44:8, s. 876-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A group of Swedish oncologists and hospital physicists have estimated the number of patients in Sweden suitable for proton beam therapy. The estimations have been based on current statistics of tumour incidence, number of patients potentially eligible for radiation treatment, scientific support from clinical trials and model dose planning studies and knowledge of the dose-response relations of different tumours and normal tissues. In head and neck cancer, including thyroid cancer, it is assessed that at least 300 patients annually will gain sufficiently from proton beam therapy, both to improve tumour control and to decrease toxicity to compensate for the increased treatment costs using protons.
  • Bhardwaj, R. D., et al. (författare)
  • Neocortical neurogenesis in humans is restricted to development.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424. ; 103:33, s. 12564-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stem cells generate neurons in discrete regions in the postnatal mammalian brain. However, the extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of (14)C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human cerebral neocortex. Together with the analysis of the neocortex from patients who received BrdU, which integrates in the DNA of dividing cells, our results demonstrate that, whereas nonneuronal cells turn over, neurons in the human cerebral neocortex are not generated in adulthood at detectable levels but are generated perinatally.
  • Blomstrand, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Estimated clinical benefit of protecting neurogenesis in the developing brain during radiation therapy for pediatric medulloblastoma.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neuro-oncology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1523-5866. ; 14:7, s. 882-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We sought to assess the feasibility and estimate the benefit of sparing the neurogenic niches when irradiating the brain of pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) based on clinical outcome data. Pediatric MB survivors experience a high risk of neurocognitive adverse effects, often attributed to the whole-brain irradiation that is part of standard management. Neurogenesis is very sensitive to radiation, and limiting the radiation dose to the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) may preserve neurocognitive function. Radiotherapy plans were created using 4 techniques: standard opposing fields, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT), and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Mean dose to the hippocampus and SVZ (mean for both sites) could be limited to 88.3% (range, 83.6%-91.0%), 77.1% (range, 71.5%-81.3%), and 42.3% (range, 26.6%-51.2%) with IMAT, IMRT, and IMPT, respectively, while maintaining at least 95% of the prescribed dose in 95% of the whole-brain target volume. Estimated risks for developing memory impairment after a prescribed dose of 23.4 Gy were 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21%-69%), 44% (95% CI, 21%-65%), 41% (95% CI, 22%-60%), and 33% (95% CI, 23%-44%) with opposing fields, IMAT, IMRT, and IMPT, respectively. Neurogenic niche sparing during cranial irradiation of pediatric patients with MB is feasible and is estimated to lower the risks of long-term neurocognitive sequelae. Greatest sparing is achieved with intensity-modulated proton therapy, thus making this an attractive option to be tested in a prospective clinical trial.
  • Boström, Martina, et al. (författare)
  • A role for endothelial cells in radiation-induced inflammation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Radiation Biology. - 0955-3002 .- 1362-3095. ; 94:3, s. 259-271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To unravel the role of the vasculature in radiation-induced brain tissue damage.Materials and methods: Postnatal day 14 mice received a single dose of 10Gy cranial irradiation and were sacrificed 6h, 24h or 7 days post-irradiation. Endothelial cells were isolated from the hippocampus and cerebellum using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, followed by cell cycle analysis and gene expression profiling.Results: Flow cytometric analysis revealed that irradiation increased the percentage of endothelial cells, relative to the whole cell population in both the hippocampus and the cerebellum. This change in cell distribution indicates that other cell types are more susceptible to irradiation-induced cell death, compared to endothelial cells. This was supported by data showing that genes involved in endothelial cell-specific apoptosis (e.g. Smpd1) were not induced at any time point investigated but that genes involved in cell-cycle arrest (e.g. Cdkn1a) were upregulated at all investigated time points, indicating endothelial cell repair. Inflammation-related genes, on the other hand, were strongly induced, such as Ccl2, Ccl11 and Il6.Conclusions: We conclude that endothelial cells are relatively resistant to ionizing radiation but that they play an active, hitherto unknown, role in the inflammatory response after irradiation. In the current study, this was shown in both the hippocampus, where neurogenesis and extensive cell death after irradiation occurs, and in the cerebellum, where neurogenesis no longer occurs at this developmental age.
  • Johansson, Karl-Axel, et al. (författare)
  • The quality assurance process for the ARTSCAN head and neck study - a practical interactive approach for QA in 3DCRT and IMRT.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 0167-8140 .- 1879-0887. ; 87:2, s. 290-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: This paper describes the quality assurance (QA) work performed in the Swedish multicenter ARTSCAN (Accelerated RadioTherapy of Squamous cell CArcinomas in the head and Neck) trial to guarantee high quality in a multicenter study which involved modern radiotherapy such as 3DCRT or IMRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was closed in June 2006 with 750 randomised patients. Radiation therapy-related data for every patient were sent by each participating centre to the QA office where all trial data were reviewed, analysed and stored. In case of any deviation from the protocol, an interactive process was started between the QA office and the local responsible clinician and/or physicist to increase the compliance to the protocol for future randomised patients. Meetings and workshops were held on a regular basis for discussions on various trial-related issues and for the QA office to report on updated results. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: This review covers the 734 patients out of a total of 750 who had entered the study. Deviations early in the study were corrected so that the overall compliance to the protocol was very high. There were only negligible variations in doses and dose distributions to target volumes for each specific site and stage. The quality of the treatments was high. Furthermore, an extensive database of treatment parameters was accumulated for future dose-volume vs. endpoint evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive QA programme increased the probability to draw firm conclusions from our study and may serve as a concept for QA work in future radiotherapy trials where comparatively small effects are searched for in a heterogeneous tumour population.
  • Mofors, J., et al. (författare)
  • Concomitant Ro/SSA and La/SSB antibodies are biomarkers for the risk of venous thromboembolism and cerebral infarction in primary Sjögren's syndrome
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 286:4, s. 458-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To assess the risk of incident cardiovascular disease in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, overall and stratified by Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantibody status.Methods: A cohort of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome in Sweden (n = 960) and matched controls from the general population (n = 9035) were included, and data extracted from the National Patient Register to identify events of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction and venous thromboembolism. Hazard ratios were estimated using cox proportional hazard regressions.Results: During a median follow‐up of 9.5 years, the overall hazard ratio (HR) was 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.1) for myocardial infarction, 1.2 (95% CI 0.9–1.7) for cerebral infarction and 2.1 (95% CI 1.6–2.9) for venous thromboembolism. Patients positive for both Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantibodies had a substantially higher risk of cerebral infarction (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.9) and venous thromboembolism (HR 3.1, 95% CI 1.9–4.8) than the general population. These risks were not significantly increased in Ro/SSA‐ and La/SSB‐negative patients. Among autoantibody‐positive patients, the highest HR of cerebral infarction was seen after ≥10 years disease duration (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.4), while the HR for venous thromboembolism was highest 0–5 years after disease diagnosis (HR 4.7, 95% CI 2.3–9.3) and remained high throughout disease duration.Conclusions: Primary Sjögren's syndrome is associated with a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the presence of Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantibodies identify the subgroup of patients carrying the highest risk. These findings suggest that monitoring and prevention of cardiovascular disease in this patient group should be considered.
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