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1.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • Age and diagnostic performance of Alzheimer disease CSF biomarkers.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : American Academy of Neurology (AAN). - 1526-632X .- 0028-3878. ; 78:7, s. 468-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Core CSF changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) are decreased amyloid β(1-42), increased total tau, and increased phospho-tau, probably indicating amyloid plaque accumulation, axonal degeneration, and tangle pathology, respectively. These biomarkers identify AD already at the predementia stage, but their diagnostic performance might be affected by age-dependent increase of AD-type brain pathology in cognitively unaffected elderly.
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2.
  • van Doorn, Ljcv, et al. (författare)
  • Improved Cerebrospinal Fluid-Based Discrimination between Alzheimer's Disease Patients and Controls after Correction for Ventricular Volumes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimers Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 56:2, s. 543-555
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may support the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied if the diagnostic power of AD CSF biomarker concentrations, i.e., A beta(42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), is affected by differences in lateral ventricular volume (VV), using CSF biomarker data and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 730 subjects, from 13 European Memory Clinics. We developed a Matlab-algorithm for standardized automated segmentation analysis of T1 weighted MRI scans in SPM8 for determining VV, and computed its ratio with total intracranial volume (TIV) as proxy for total CSF volume. The diagnostic power of CSF biomarkers (and their combination), either corrected for VV/TIV ratio or not, was determined by ROC analysis. CSF A beta(42) levels inversely correlated to VV/TIV in the whole study population (A beta(42): r = -0.28; p < 0.0001). For CSF t-tau and p-tau, this association only reached statistical significance in the combined MCI and AD group (t-tau: r = -0.15; p-tau: r = -0.13; both p < 0.01). Correction for differences in VV/TIV improved the differentiation of AD versus controls based on CSF A beta(42) alone (AUC: 0.75 versus 0.81) or in combination with t-tau (AUC: 0.81 versus 0.91). In conclusion, differences in VV may be an important confounder in interpreting CSF A beta(42) levels.
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3.
  • Frisoni, G. B., et al. (författare)
  • Strategic roadmap for an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease based on biomarkers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 16:8, s. 661-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can be improved by the use of biological measures. Biomarkers of functional impairment, neuronal loss, and protein deposition that can be assessed by neuroimaging (ie, MRI and PET) or CSF analysis are increasingly being used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease in research studies and specialist clinical settings. However, the validation of the clinical usefulness of these biomarkers is incomplete, and that is hampering reimbursement for these tests by health insurance providers, their widespread clinical implementation, and improvements in quality of health care. We have developed a strategic five-phase roadmap to foster the clinical validation of biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease, adapted from the approach for cancer biomarkers. Sufficient evidence of analytical validity (phase 1 of a structured framework adapted from oncology) is available for all biomarkers, but their clinical validity (phases 2 and 3) and clinical utility (phases 4 and 5) are incomplete. To complete these phases, research priorities include the standardisation of the readout of these assays and thresholds for normality, the evaluation of their performance in detecting early disease, the development of diagnostic algorithms comprising combinations of biomarkers, and the development of clinical guidelines for the use of biomarkers in qualified memory clinics.
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4.
  • Karrman, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and cytogenetic features of a population-based consecutive series of 285 pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias: rare T-cell receptor gene rearrangements are associated with poor outcome.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genes, chromosomes & cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1098-2264 .- 1045-2257. ; 48:9, s. 795-805
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clinical characteristics and cytogenetic aberrations were ascertained and reviewed in a population-based consecutive series of 285 pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) diagnosed between 1992 and 2006 in the Nordic countries. Informative karyotypic results were obtained in 249 (87%) cases, of which 119 (48%) were cytogenetically abnormal. Most (62%) of the aberrant T-ALLs were pseudodiploid. Structural changes were more common than numerical ones; 86% displayed at least one structural abnormality and 41% at least one numerical anomaly. The most frequent abnormalities were T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (20%) [TCR;11p13 (10%), TCR;10q24 (3%), TCR;other (8%)], del(9p) (17%), +8 (14%), del(6q) (12%), and 11q23 rearrangements (6%). The TCR;other group comprised the rare rearrangements t(X;14)(p11;q11), t(X;7)(q22;q34), t(1;14)(p32;q11), ins(14;5)(q11;q?q?), inv(7)(p15q34), t(8;14)(q24;q11), t(7;11)(q34;p15), and t(12;14)(p13;q11). The clinical characteristics of this Nordic patient cohort agreed well with previous larger series, with a median age of 9.0 years, male predominance (male/female ratio 3.1), median white blood cell (WBC) count of 66.5 x 10(9)/l, and a high incidence of mediastinal mass and central nervous system involvement (59% and 9.5%, respectively). These features did not differ significantly among the various genetic subgroups. 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival for all patients were 0.61 (+/-0.03) and 0.67 (+/-0.03), respectively. In a multivariate analysis, two factors affected negatively the EFS, namely a WBC count of > or =200 x 10(9)/l (P < 0.001) and the presence of rare TCR rearrangements (P = 0.001). In conclusion, in this large series of childhood T-ALLs from the Nordic countries, the cytogenetic findings were not associated with risk of therapy failure with the exception of the TCR;other group. However, further prospective and collaborative investigations of this genetically heterogeneous entity are needed to confirm these results.
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5.
  • Andreasson, M., et al. (författare)
  • Altered CSF levels of monoamines in hereditary spastic paraparesis 10 A case series
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurology-Genetics. - 2376-7839. ; 5:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To perform a comprehensive clinical characterization and biochemical CSF profile analyses in 2 Swedish families with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) 10 (SPG10) caused by 2 different mutations in the neuronal kinesin heavy chain gene (KIF5A). Methods Structured clinical assessment, genetic studies, and neuroradiologic and electrophysiological evaluations were performed in 4 patients from 2 families with SPG10. Additional CSF analysis was conducted in 3 patients with regard to levels of neurodegenerative markers and monoamine metabolism. Results All patients exhibited a complex form of HSP with a mild to moderate concurrent axonal polyneuropathy. The heterozygous missense mutations c.767A>G and c.967C>T in KIF5A were found. Wide intrafamilial phenotype variability was evident in both families. CSF analysis demonstrated a mild elevation of neurofilament light (NFL) chain in the patient with longest disease duration. Unexpectedly, all patients exhibited increased levels of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid, whereas decreased levels of the noradrenergic metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, were found in 2 of 3 patients. Conclusions We report on CSF abnormalities in SPG10, demonstrating that NFL elevation is not a mandatory finding but may appear after long-standing disease. Impaired transportation of synaptic proteins may be a possible explanation for the increased dopaminergic turnover and noradrenergic deficiency identified. The reasons for these selective abnormalities, unrelated to obvious clinical features, remain to be explained. Our findings need further confirmation in larger cohorts of patients harboring KIF5A mutations.
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6.
  • Austeng, Dordi, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of and risk factors for neonatal morbidity after active perinatal care: extremely preterm infants study in Sweden (EXPRESS)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Acta Pædiatrica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1651-2227 .- 0803-5253. ; 99:7, s. 978-992
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal morbidity in extremely preterm infants and to identify associated risk factors. Methods: Population based study of infants born before 27 gestational weeks and admitted for neonatal intensive care in Sweden during 2004-2007. Results: Of 638 admitted infants, 141 died. Among these, life support was withdrawn in 55 infants because of anticipation of poor long-term outcome. Of 497 surviving infants, 10% developed severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), 5.7% cystic periventricular leucomalacia (cPVL), 41% septicaemia and 5.8% necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC); 61% had patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and 34% developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) stage >= 3. Eighty-five per cent needed mechanical ventilation and 25% developed severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Forty-seven per cent survived to one year of age without any severe IVH, cPVL, severe ROP, severe BPD or NEC. Tocolysis increased and prolonged mechanical ventilation decreased the chances of survival without these morbidities. Maternal smoking and higher gestational duration were associated with lower risk of severe ROP, whereas PDA and poor growth increased this risk. Conclusion: Half of the infants surviving extremely preterm birth suffered from severe neonatal morbidities. Studies on how to reduce these morbidities and on the long-term health of survivors are warranted.
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7.
  • Bache, Iben, et al. (författare)
  • An excess of chromosome 1 breakpoints in male infertility.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5438 .- 1018-4813. ; 12:12, s. 993-1000
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a search for potential infertility loci, which might be revealed by clustering of chromosomal breakpoints, we compiled 464 infertile males with a balanced rearrangement from Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database (MCNdb) and compared their karyotypes with those of a Danish nation-wide cohort. We excluded Robertsonian translocations, rearrangements involving sex chromosomes and common variants. We identified 10 autosomal bands, five of which were on chromosome 1, with a large excess of breakpoints in the infertility group. Some of these could potentially harbour a male-specific infertility locus. However, a general excess of breakpoints almost everywhere on chromosome 1 was observed among the infertile males: 26.5 versus 14.5% in the cohort. This excess was observed both for translocation and inversion carriers, especially pericentric inversions, both for published and unpublished cases, and was significantly associated with azoospermia. The largest number of breakpoints was reported in 1q21; FISH mapping of four of these breakpoints revealed that they did not involve the same region at the molecular level. We suggest that chromosome 1 harbours a critical domain whose integrity is essential for male fertility.
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8.
  • Leuzy, A., et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal tau and metabolic PET imaging in relation to novel CSF tau measures in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 46:5, s. 1152-1163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Studies comparing CSF and PET tau biomarkers have included only commercial CSF assays examining specific phosphorylation sites (e.g. threonine 181, P-tau(181p)) and mid-domain tau (i.e. total tau, T-tau). Moreover, these studies did not examine CSF tau levels in relation to cerebral glucose metabolism. We thus aimed to examine CSF tau measures, using both commercial and novel assays, in relation to [F-18]THK5317 (tau) and [F-18]FDG PET (glucose metabolism). Methods Fourteen Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (seven prodromal, seven dementia) underwent [F-18]THK5317 and [F-18]FDG PET studies, with follow-up performed in ten subjects (six prodromal, four dementia) after 17 months. In addition to commercial assays, novel measures capturing N-terminus+mid-domain (tau N-Mid) and C-terminally truncated (tau-368) fragments were included. Results While the levels of all forms of CSF tau were found to be inversely associated with baseline [F-18]FDG uptake, associations with baseline [F-18]THK5317 uptake varied in relation to the degree of isocortical hypometabolism ([F-18]FDG SUVR). Changes in the levels of the novel CSF markers tracked longitudinal changes in tracer uptake better than changes in P-tau(181p) and T-tau levels, and improved concordance with dichotomized regional [F-18]THK5317 measures. Conclusion Our findings suggest that neurodegeneration may modulate the relationship between CSF and PET tau biomarkers, and that, by comparison to P-tau(181p) and T-tau, tau-368 and tau N-Mid may better capturetau pathology and synaptic impairment.
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9.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in amyloid β positive subjects across the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 14:7, s. 913-924
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its prevalence is unclear because earlier studies did not require biomarker evidence of amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. Methods: We included 3451 Aβ+ subjects (853 AD-type dementia, 1810 mild cognitive impairment, and 788 cognitively normal). Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess APOE ε4 prevalence in relation to age, sex, education, and geographical location. Results: The APOE ε4 prevalence was 66% in AD-type dementia, 64% in mild cognitive impairment, and 51% in cognitively normal, and it decreased with advancing age in Aβ+ cognitively normal and Aβ+ mild cognitive impairment (P <.05) but not in Aβ+ AD dementia (P =.66). The prevalence was highest in Northern Europe but did not vary by sex or education. Discussion: The APOE ε4 prevalence in AD was higher than that in previous studies, which did not require presence of Aβ pathology. Furthermore, our results highlight disease heterogeneity related to age and geographical location.
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10.
  • Nilselid, Anna-Maria, 1967, et al. (författare)
  • Clusterin in cerebrospinal fluid: analysis of carbohydrates and quantification of native and glycosylated forms
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Neurochem Int.. ; 48:8, s. 718-728
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clusterin is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Clusterin expression is increased in brain tissue in affected regions of Alzheimer patients, and intense clusterin staining is found in both senile plaques and in neuronal and glia cells. In contrast, the cerebrospinal fluid level of clusterin in Alzheimer patients has, thus far, been found unchanged. Clusterin is a glycosylated protein, and an alteration of its glycosylation in Alzheimer's disease might influence accurate quantification in cerebrospinal fluid through interference of antibody binding to the protein. Using enzymatic deglycosylation of clusterin isolated from cerebrospinal fluid, we found that the carbohydrates attached to clusterin were of the N-linked type and sialic acids. Based on this finding, cerebrospinal fluid samples from Alzheimer patients (n = 99) and controls (n = 39) were analysed. The samples were treated with peptide: N-glycanase F, cleaving off N-linked carbohydrates, and clusterin was quantified before and after deglycosylation using a new sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clusterin was significantly increased in Alzheimer patients, in both native (7.17 ± 2.43 AU versus 5.73 ± 2.09 AU; p = 0.002), and deglycosylated samples (12.19 ± 5.00 AU versus 9.68 ± 4.38 AU; p = 0.004). Deglycosylation led to increased measured levels of clusterin by 70% (p < 0.001) in Alzheimer patients and 67% (p < 0.001) in controls. These findings indicate that glycosylation of proteins may interfere with their quantification. The results show that clusterin is significantly increased in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients as a group, supporting that clusterin might be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the individual clusterin levels overlap between the two groups, and thus cerebrospinal fluid clusterin measurement is not suitable as a biochemical marker in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.
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