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1.
  • Anckarsäter, Rolf, 1956, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid protein reactions during non-neurological surgery.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Acta neurologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6314 .- 1600-0404. ; 115:4, s. 254-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein markers of blood-CSF barrier integrity and immunological reactions during surgical stress. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients without neurological or psychiatric disorders undergoing knee replacements had CSF and serum samples drawn from spinal and arterial catheters before, 3 h after and the morning after surgery. RESULTS: Serum albumin decreased during surgery and CSF albumin decreased during and after surgery, and, as a consequence, the CSF/serum albumin ratio decreased significantly during the study period, especially after the intervention. In contrast, CSF concentrations of beta-2-microglobuline (beta2M) increased significantly during surgery and remained high. The CSF general marker beta-trace protein (betaTP) remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Central nervous system protein reactions to a non-neurological surgical intervention include sharply decreased permeability of albumin into the CSF and signs of intrathecal inflammatory activity.
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2.
  • Ashton, Nicholas J., et al. (författare)
  • The validation status of blood biomarkers of amyloid and phospho-tau assessed with the 5-phase development framework for AD biomarkers
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : Springer. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The development of blood biomarkers that reflect Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology (phosphorylated tau and amyloid-beta) has offered potential as scalable tests for dementia differential diagnosis and early detection. In 2019, the Geneva AD Biomarker Roadmap Initiative included blood biomarkers in the systematic validation of AD biomarkers. Methods A panel of experts convened in November 2019 at a two-day workshop in Geneva. The level of maturity (fully achieved, partly achieved, preliminary evidence, not achieved, unsuccessful) of blood biomarkers was assessed based on the Biomarker Roadmap methodology and discussed fully during the workshop which also evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers. Results Plasma p-tau has shown analytical validity (phase 2 primary aim 1) and first evidence of clinical validity (phase 3 primary aim 1), whereas the maturity level for A beta remains to be partially achieved. Full and partial achievement has been assigned to p-tau and A beta, respectively, in their associations to ante-mortem measures (phase 2 secondary aim 2). However, only preliminary evidence exists for the influence of covariates, assay comparison and cut-off criteria. Conclusions Despite the relative infancy of blood biomarkers, in comparison to CSF biomarkers, much has already been achieved for phases 1 through 3 - with p-tau having greater success in detecting AD and predicting disease progression. However, sufficient data about the effect of covariates on the biomarker measurement is lacking. No phase 4 (real-world performance) or phase 5 (assessment of impact/cost) aim has been tested, thus not achieved.
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4.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • Age and diagnostic performance of Alzheimer disease CSF biomarkers.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : American Academy of Neurology (AAN). - 1526-632X .- 0028-3878. ; 78:7, s. 468-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Core CSF changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) are decreased amyloid β(1-42), increased total tau, and increased phospho-tau, probably indicating amyloid plaque accumulation, axonal degeneration, and tangle pathology, respectively. These biomarkers identify AD already at the predementia stage, but their diagnostic performance might be affected by age-dependent increase of AD-type brain pathology in cognitively unaffected elderly.
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5.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced cerebrospinal fluid BACE1 activity in multiple sclerosis.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England). - : SAGE Publications. - 1352-4585. ; 15:4, s. 448-454
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cell and animal experiments have shown that beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) may be involved in myelination. OBJECTIVE: Here, we assess the association of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) BACE1 activity with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: BACE1 activity and levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid-beta (Abeta) isoforms were analyzed in CSF from 100 patients with MS and 114 neurologically healthy controls. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 26 with and 41 without cerebral engagement, were also included to enable comparisons with regards to another autoimmune disease. A subset of patients with MS and controls underwent a second lumbar puncture after 10 years. RESULTS: MS patients had lower CSF BACE1 activity than controls (P = 0.03) and patients with cerebral SLE (P < 0.001). Patients with cerebral SLE had higher BACE1 activity than any other group (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). BACE1 activity correlated with the different amyloid markers in all study groups. BACE1 activity decreased over 10 years in the MS group (P = 0.039) and correlated weakly with clinical disease severity scores in an inverse manner. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest an involvement of BACE1 in the MS disease process.
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6.
  • Nilselid, Anna-Maria, 1967, et al. (författare)
  • Clusterin in cerebrospinal fluid: analysis of carbohydrates and quantification of native and glycosylated forms
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Neurochem Int.. ; 48:8, s. 718-728
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clusterin is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Clusterin expression is increased in brain tissue in affected regions of Alzheimer patients, and intense clusterin staining is found in both senile plaques and in neuronal and glia cells. In contrast, the cerebrospinal fluid level of clusterin in Alzheimer patients has, thus far, been found unchanged. Clusterin is a glycosylated protein, and an alteration of its glycosylation in Alzheimer's disease might influence accurate quantification in cerebrospinal fluid through interference of antibody binding to the protein. Using enzymatic deglycosylation of clusterin isolated from cerebrospinal fluid, we found that the carbohydrates attached to clusterin were of the N-linked type and sialic acids. Based on this finding, cerebrospinal fluid samples from Alzheimer patients (n = 99) and controls (n = 39) were analysed. The samples were treated with peptide: N-glycanase F, cleaving off N-linked carbohydrates, and clusterin was quantified before and after deglycosylation using a new sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clusterin was significantly increased in Alzheimer patients, in both native (7.17 ± 2.43 AU versus 5.73 ± 2.09 AU; p = 0.002), and deglycosylated samples (12.19 ± 5.00 AU versus 9.68 ± 4.38 AU; p = 0.004). Deglycosylation led to increased measured levels of clusterin by 70% (p < 0.001) in Alzheimer patients and 67% (p < 0.001) in controls. These findings indicate that glycosylation of proteins may interfere with their quantification. The results show that clusterin is significantly increased in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients as a group, supporting that clusterin might be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the individual clusterin levels overlap between the two groups, and thus cerebrospinal fluid clusterin measurement is not suitable as a biochemical marker in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.
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7.
  • Parnetti, L, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in CSF acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase activity after long-term treatment with AChE inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Acta neurologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-0404. ; 124:2, s. 122-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives - To measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) participating in randomized clinical trials from three European centers, before and after long-term treatment with different AChE inhibitors (AChEIs). Materials and methods - Of the 144 patients included in the study, 104 were treated with donepezil, 15 with galantamine, 16 with rivastigmine, and nine with placebo. CSF AChE and BChE activities were measured at baseline and after 1- year treatment. Results - Donepezil and galantamine groups showed a significant increase in CSF AChE activity at follow-up, while no changes for BChE activity were observed; in donepezil group, a positive correlation between plasma concentration and AChE activity was documented. Conversely, in rivastigmine group, a decrease in CSF activity of both enzymes was observed. CSF AChE and BChE activities were not correlated with the clinical outcome in any group considered. CSF biomarkers did not show any change after treatment. Conclusions - AChEIs differently influence the activity of target enzymes in CSF independent of their pharmacodynamic effects.
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10.
  • Abdullah, Laila, et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of Baseline Alzheimer's Disease Severity on Cognitive Decline and CSF Biomarkers in the NILVAD Trial.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in neurology. - 1664-2295. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined the effects of a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nilvadipine with anti-inflammatory properties on cognition and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers by baseline Alzheimer's disease (AD) severity. Exploratory analyses were performed on the dataset (n = 497) of a phase III randomized placebo-controlled trial to examine the response to nilvadipine in AD subjects stratified by baseline AD severity into very mild (MMSE ≥ 25), mild (MMSE 20-24) and moderate AD (MMSE < 20). The outcome measures included total and subscale scores of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive 12 (ADAS-Cog 12), the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes (CDR-sb) and the AD composite score (ADCOMS). Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42, neurofilament light chain (NFL), neurogranin, YKL-40, total tau and P181 tau (ptau) were measured in a subset of samples (n = 55). Regression analyses were adjusted for confounders to specifically examine the influence of nilvadipine and baseline AD severity on cognitive outcomes over 78-weeks. Compared to their respective placebo-controls, nilvadipine-treated, very mild AD subjects showed less decline, whereas moderate AD subjects showed a greater cognitive decline on the ADAS-Cog 12 test and the ADCOMS. A lower decline was observed after nilvadipine treatment for a composite memory trait in very mild AD subjects and a composite language trait in mild AD subjects. Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42/Aβ40 ratios were increased in mild AD and decreased in moderate AD patients treated with nilvadipine, compared to their respective controls. Among moderate AD subjects, levels of ptau, total tau, neurogranin and YKL-40 increased in subjects treated with nilvadipine compared to placebo. These studies suggest that baseline AD severity influenced the treatment outcome in the NILVAD trial and that future clinical trials of nilvadipine should be restricted to mild and very mild AD patients. Trial Registration: NCT02017340 Registered 20 December 2013, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02017340 EUDRACT Reference Number 2012-002764-27 Registered 04 February 2013, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query=2012-002764-27.
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