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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Boesgaard TW) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Boesgaard TW)

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1.
  • Dimas, Antigone S, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants on quantitative glycemic traits reveals mechanistic heterogeneity.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 63:6, s. 2158-2171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with established type 2 diabetes display both beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. To define fundamental processes leading to the diabetic state, we examined the relationship between type 2 diabetes risk variants at 37 established susceptibility loci and indices of proinsulin processing, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. We included data from up to 58,614 non-diabetic subjects with basal measures, and 17,327 with dynamic measures. We employed additive genetic models with adjustment for sex, age and BMI, followed by fixed-effects inverse variance meta-analyses. Cluster analyses grouped risk loci into five major categories based on their relationship to these continuous glycemic phenotypes. The first cluster (PPARG, KLF14, IRS1, GCKR) was characterized by primary effects on insulin sensitivity. The second (MTNR1B, GCK) featured risk alleles associated with reduced insulin secretion and fasting hyperglycemia. ARAP1 constituted a third cluster characterized by defects in insulin processing. A fourth cluster (including TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX/IDE, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B) was defined by loci influencing insulin processing and secretion without detectable change in fasting glucose. The final group contained twenty risk loci with no clear-cut associations to continuous glycemic traits. By assembling extensive data on continuous glycemic traits, we have exposed the diverse mechanisms whereby type 2 diabetes risk variants impact disease predisposition.
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2.
  • Saxena, Richa, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:2, s. 75-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2- h glucose level (rs10423928, beta (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 x 10(-15)). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 x 10(-17); ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 x 10(-16)) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 x 10(-4)). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 x 10(-16)), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 x 10(-8)), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 x 10(-11)) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 x 10(-10)) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15, P = 4.8 x 10(-18)).
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3.
  • Laakso, M., et al. (författare)
  • Insulin sensitivity, insulin release and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in persons with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance in the EUGENE2 study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 0012-186X. ; 51:3, s. 502-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the phenotype of individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) with regard to insulin release and insulin resistance. METHODS: Non-diabetic offspring (n=874; mean age 40+/-10.4 years; BMI 26.6+/-4.9 kg/m(2)) of type 2 diabetic patients from five different European Centres (Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy and Sweden) were examined with regard to insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic clamps), insulin release (IVGTT) and glucose tolerance (OGTT). The levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) were measured during the OGTT in 278 individuals. RESULTS: Normal glucose tolerance was found in 634 participants, while 110 had isolated IFG, 86 had isolated IGT and 44 had both IFG and IGT, i.e. about 28% had a form of reduced glucose tolerance. Participants with isolated IFG had lower glucose-corrected first-phase (0-10 min) and higher second-phase insulin release (10-60 min) during the IVGTT, while insulin sensitivity was reduced in all groups with abnormal glucose tolerance. Similarly, GLP-1 but not GIP levels were reduced in individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The primary mechanism leading to hyperglycaemia in participants with isolated IFG is likely to be impaired basal and first-phase insulin secretion, whereas in isolated IGT the primary mechanism leading to postglucose load hyperglycaemia is insulin resistance. Reduced GLP-1 levels were seen in all groups with abnormal glucose tolerance and were unrelated to the insulin release pattern during an IVGTT.
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4.
  • Stancakova, A., et al. (författare)
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7754840 of CDKAL1 is associated with impaired insulin secretion in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects and in a large sample of men with normal glucose tolerance
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 93:5, s. 1924-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: CDKAL1 is a recently discovered susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the impact of rs7754840 of CDKAL1 on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Study 1 (the EUGENE2 study) was a cross-sectional study including subjects from five white populations in Europe (Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, and Sweden). Study 2 is an ongoing prospective study of Finnish men. PARTICIPANTS: In study 1, 846 nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients (age 40 +/- 10 yr; body mass index 26.7 +/- 5.0 kg/m(2)) participated. In study 2, subjects included 3900 middle-aged men (533 type 2 diabetic and 3367 nondiabetic subjects). Interventions: Interventions included iv glucose-tolerance test (IVGTT), oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT), and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in study 1 and OGTT in study 2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parameters of insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and glucose tolerance status were assessed. RESULTS: In study 1, carriers of the GC and CC genotypes of rs7754840 had 11 and 24% lower first-phase insulin release in an IVGTT compared with that in carriers of the GG genotype (P = 0.002). The C allele was also associated with higher glucose area under the curve in an OGTT (P = 0.016). In study 2, rs7754840 was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.022) and markers of impaired insulin release [insulinogenic index (IGI), P = 0.012] in 2405 men with normal glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: rs7754840 of CDKAL1 was associated with markers of impaired insulin secretion in two independent studies. Furthermore, rs7754840 was associated with type 2 diabetes in Finnish men (study 2). Therefore, CDKAL1 is likely to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes by impairing insulin secretion.
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