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Sökning: WFRF:(Boice John D)

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1.
  • Travis, Lois B., et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative absolute breast cancer risk for young women treated for Hodgkin lymphoma
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 97:19, s. 1428-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Many women develop breast cancer after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) at a young age. We estimated this future risk, taking into account age and calendar year of HL diagnosis, HL treatment information, population breast cancer incidence rates, and competing causes of death. METHODS: Relative risks of breast cancer for categories defined by radiation dose to the chest (0, 20- < 40 Gy, or > or = 40 Gy) and use of alkylating agents (yes or no) were estimated from a case-control study conducted within an international population-based cohort of 3817 female 1-year survivors of HL diagnosed at age 30 years or younger from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 1994. To compute cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer, we used modified standardized incidence ratios to relate cohort breast cancer risks to those in the general population, enabling application of population-based breast cancer rates, and we allowed for competing risks by using population-based mortality rates in female HL survivors. RESULTS: Cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer increased with age at end of follow-up, time since HL diagnosis, and radiation dose. For an HL survivor who was treated at age 25 years with a chest radiation dose of at least 40 Gy without alkylating agents, estimated cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer by age 35, 45, and 55 years were 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9% to 2.1%), 11.1% (95% CI = 7.4% to 16.3%), and 29.0% (95% CI = 20.2% to 40.1%), respectively. Cumulative absolute risks were lower in women treated with alkylating agents. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer projections varied considerably by type of HL therapy, time since HL diagnosis, and age at end of follow-up. These estimates are applicable to HL survivors treated with regimens of the past and can be used to counsel such patients and plan management and preventive strategies. Projections should be used with caution, however, in patients treated with more recent approaches, including limited-field radiotherapy and/or ovary-sparing chemotherapy.
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2.
  • Hill, Deirdre A., et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer risk following radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma : modification by other risk factors
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Blood. - 0006-4971 .- 1528-0020. ; 106:10, s. 3358-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The importance of genetic and other risk factors in the development of breast cancer after radiotherapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has not been determined. We analyzed data from a breast cancer case-control study (105 patients, 266 control subjects) conducted among 3 817 survivors of HL diagnosed at age 30 years or younger in 6 population-based cancer registries. Odds ratios (ORs) and excess relative risks (ERRs) were calculated using conditional regression. Women who received RT exposure (> or = 5 Gy radiation dose to the breast) had a 2.7-fold increased breast cancer risk (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-5.2), compared with those given less than 5 Gy. RT exposure (> or = 5 Gy) was associated with an OR of 0.8 (95% CI, 0.2-3.4) among women with a first- or second-degree family history of breast or ovarian cancer, and 5.8 (95% CI, 2.1-16.3) among all other women (interaction P = .03). History of a live birth appeared to increase the breast cancer risk associated with RT among women not treated with ovarian-damaging therapies. Breast cancer risk following RT varied little according to other factors. The additional increased relative risk of breast cancer after RT for HL is unlikely to be larger among women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer than among other women.
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3.
  • Naumburg, Estelle, et al. (författare)
  • Intrauterine exposure to diagnostic X rays and risk of childhood leukemia subtypes
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Radiation Research. - 0033-7587 .- 1938-5404. ; 156:6, s. 718-723
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relationship between childhood leukemia and prenatal exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation remains debatable. This population-based case-control study investigated the association between prenatal exposure to diagnostic X-ray examinations (for different types of examinations and at different stages of pregnancy) and the risk of childhood lymphatic and myeloid leukemia. All children born and diagnosed with leukemia between 1973-1989 in Sweden (578 lymphatic and 74 myeloid) were selected as cases, and each was matched (by sex and year of birth) to a healthy control child (excluding Down's syndrome). Exposure data were abstracted blindly from all available medical records. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. It was found that prenatal X-ray examinations resulting in direct fetal exposure were not associated with a significant overall increased risk for childhood leukemia (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.83-1.47), for lymphatic leukemia (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.77-1.40), or for myeloid leukemia (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 0.48-4.72). There was little evidence of a dose response or variation in risk by trimester of exposure or age at diagnosis. Thus X-ray examinations performed during pregnancy in the 1970s and 1980s in Sweden did not affect the risk of childhood leukemia discernibly.
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4.
  • Nyrén, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of connective tissue disease and related disorders among women with breast implants : a nation-wide retrospective cohort study in Sweden
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). - 0959-8138. ; 316:7129, s. 417-422
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between connective tissue disease and related conditions and breast implants. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of all women in the Swedish national inpatient registry who underwent breast augmentation surgery with artificial implants during 1964-93, compared with women who underwent breast reduction surgery during the same period. SETTING: Sweden. SUBJECTS: 7442 women with implants for cosmetic reasons or for reconstruction after breast cancer surgery and 3353 women with breast reduction surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subsequent hospitalisation for definite connective tissue diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome) or related disorders. RESULTS: 29 women with implants were hospitalised for definite connective tissue disease compared with 25.5 expected based on general population rates (standardised hospitalisation ratio 1.1 (95% confidence interval 0.8 to 1.6)). There were no diagnoses of systemic sclerosis, and no significant excess in risk for polymyalgia rheumatica, fibromyalgia, and several related disorders. Among women who underwent breast reduction surgery, 14 were hospitalised for definite connective tissue disease compared with 10.5 expected (standardised hospitalisation ratio 1.3 (0.7 to 2.2)). Compared with the breast reduction group, women with breast implants showed a slight reduction for all definite connective tissue disease (relative risk 0.8 (95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.4)). CONCLUSIONS: This large nationwide cohort study shows no evidence of association between breast implants and connective tissue disease.
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5.
  • Travis, Lois B, et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer following radiotherapy and chemotherapy among young women with Hodgkin disease
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 290:4, s. 465-475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Second cancer is the leading cause of death in long-term survivors of Hodgkin disease (HD), with exceptionally high risks of breast cancer among women treated at a young age. Quantitative associations between radiotherapy dose delivered to the breast and administered chemotherapy have not been reported to date in large series, nor has the influence of ovarian exposures on subsequent risk.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the long-term risk of breast cancer associated with use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy to treat young women with HD.DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: Matched case-control study of breast cancer within a cohort of 3817 female 1-year survivors of HD diagnosed at age 30 years or younger, between January 1, 1965, and December 31, 1994, and within 6 population-based cancer registries. The study was conducted March 1, 1996, through September 30, 1998.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk (RR) of breast cancer associated with radiation dose delivered to site of breast cancer or to ovaries and with cumulative dose of alkylating agents.RESULTS: Breast cancer occurred in 105 patients with HD who were matched to 266 patients with HD but without breast cancer. A radiation dose of 4 Gy or more delivered to the breast was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-8.2) increased risk, compared with the risk in patients who received lower doses and no alkylating agents. Risk increased to 8-fold (95% CI, 2.6-26.4) with a dose of more than 40 Gy (P<.001 for trend). Radiation risk did not vary appreciably by age at exposure or reproductive history. Increased risks persisted for 25 or more years following radiotherapy (RR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.5-16.5; P =.03 for trend with dose). Treatment with alkylating agents alone resulted in a reduced risk (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.2-2.0) of breast cancer, and combined alkylating agents and radiotherapy in a 1.4-fold (95% CI, 0.6-3.5) increased risk. Risk of breast cancer decreased with increasing number of alkylating agent cycles (P =.003 for trend). Risk also was low (RR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.1) among women who received 5 Gy or more delivered to ovaries compared with those who received lower doses.CONCLUSIONS: Hormonal stimulation appears important for the development of radiation-induced breast cancer, as evidenced by the reduced risk associated with ovarian damage from alkylating agents or radiation. The high radiation-related risk, which did not diminish at the highest doses or the longest follow-up, however, suggests the need for lifetime surveillance and programs of patient and public awareness.
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6.
  • Travis, Lois B, et al. (författare)
  • Lung cancer following chemotherapy and radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 94:3, s. 182-192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a frequent cause of death in patients cured of Hodgkin's disease, but the contributions of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and smoking are not well described. We quantified the risk of treatment-associated lung cancer, taking into account tobacco use.METHODS: Within a population-based cohort of 19 046 Hodgkin's disease patients (diagnosed from 1965 through 1994), a case-control study of lung cancer was conducted. The cumulative amount of cytotoxic drugs, the radiation dose to the specific location in the lung where cancer developed, and tobacco use were compared for 222 patients who developed lung cancer and for 444 matched control patients. All statistical tests were two-sided.RESULTS: Treatment with alkylating agents without radiotherapy was associated with increased lung cancer risk (relative risk [RR] = 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1 to 8.8), as was radiation dose of 5 Gy or more without alkylating agents (RR = 5.9; 95% CI = 2.7 to 13.5). Risk increased with both increasing number of cycles of alkylating agents and increasing radiation dose (P for trend <.001). Among patients treated with mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP), risk increased with cumulative amounts of mechlorethamine and procarbazine (P<.001) when evaluated separately. Statistically significantly elevated risks of lung cancer were apparent within 1-4 years after treatment with alkylating agents, whereas excess risk after radiotherapy began 5 years after treatment and persisted for more than 20 years. Risk after treatment with alkylating agents and radiotherapy together was as expected if individual excess risks were summed. Tobacco use increased lung cancer risk more than 20-fold; risks from smoking appeared to multiply risks from treatment.CONCLUSIONS: Past treatments with alkylating agents and radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in a dose-dependent and additive fashion. The precise risk estimates, however, should be interpreted cautiously, given the possible residual and enhancing effects of tobacco.
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7.
  • Bernstein, Jonine L., et al. (författare)
  • Contralateral breast cancer after radiotherapy among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: A WECARE Study Report
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0852. ; 49:14, s. 2979-2985
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/BRCA2) mutations are at very high risk of developing breast cancer, including asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC). BRCA1/BRCA2 genes help maintain genome stability and assist in DNA repair. We examined whether the risk of CBC associated with radiation treatment was higher among women with germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations than among non-carriers. Methods: A population-based, nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 52,536 survivors of unilateral breast cancer (UBC). Cases were 603 women with CBC and controls were 1199 women with UBC individually matched on age at diagnosis, race, year of first diagnosis and cancer registry. All women were tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Radiation absorbed dose from the initial radiotherapy (RT) to the CBC location within the contralateral breast was reconstructed from measurements in a tissue-equivalent phantom and details available in the therapy records. Findings: Among women treated with radiation, the mean radiation dose was 1.1 Gy (range = 0.02-6.2 Gy). Risk of developing CBC was elevated among women who carried a deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation (rate ratio, RR = 4.5, confidence interval, CI = 3.0-6.8), and also among those treated with RT (RR = 1.2, CI = 1.0-1.6). However, among mutation carriers, an incremental increase in risk associated with radiation dose was not statistically significant. Interpretation: Multiplicative interaction of RT with mutation status would be reflected by a larger association of RT with CBC among carriers than among non-carriers, but this was not apparent. Accordingly, there was no clear indication that carriers of deleterious BRCA/BRCA2 mutations were more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of radiation than non-carriers. These findings are reassuring and have important clinical implications for treatment decisions and the clinical management of patients harbouring deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. Funding: All work associated with this study was supported by the U.S. National Cancer Institute [R01CA097397, U01CA083178]. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Malone, Kathleen E, et al. (författare)
  • Population-Based Study of the Risk of Second Primary Contralateral Breast Cancer Associated With Carrying a Mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755. ; 28, s. 2404-2410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer diagnosed early in life comprise a substantial portion of those tested for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations; however, little information is available on the subsequent risks of contralateral breast cancer in mutation carriers. This study assessed the risk of subsequent contralateral breast cancer associated with carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this nested case-control study, patients with contralateral breast cancer diagnosed 1 year or more after a first primary breast cancer (n = 705) and controls with unilateral breast cancer (n = 1,398) were ascertained from an underlying population-based cohort of 52,536 women diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer before age 55 years. Interviews and medical record reviews were used to collect risk factor and treatment histories. All women were tested for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. Relative (rate ratios) and absolute (5- and 10-year cumulative) risks of developing contralateral breast cancer following a first invasive breast cancer were computed. RESULTS: Compared with noncarriers, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had 4.5-fold (95% CI, 2.8- to 7.1-fold) and 3.4-fold (95% CI, 2.0- to 5.8-fold) increased risks of contralateral breast cancer, respectively. The relative risk of contralateral breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers increased as age of first diagnosis decreased. Age-specific cumulative risks are provided for clinical guidance. CONCLUSION: The risks of subsequent contralateral breast cancer are substantial for women who carry a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation. These findings have important clinical relevance regarding the assessment of BRCA1/BRCA2 status in patients with breast cancer and the counseling and clinical management of patients found to carry a mutation.
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9.
  • Sällfors-Holmqvist, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia: Diabetes mellitus following treatment for cancer in childhood.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0852. ; 50:6, s. 1169-1175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An increased risk for diabetes mellitus (DM) adds significantly to the burden of late complications in childhood cancer survivors. Complications of DM may be prevented by using appropriate screening. It is, therefore, important to better characterise the reported increased risk for DM in a large population-based setting.
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