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Sökning: WFRF:(Bokde Arun L W)

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1.
  • Jia, Tianye, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of blood DNA methylation and its association with subcortical volumes : findings from the ENIGMA Epigenetics Working Group.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA methylation, which is modulated by both genetic factors and environmental exposures, may offer a unique opportunity to discover novel biomarkers of disease-related brain phenotypes, even when measured in other tissues than brain, such as blood. A few studies of small sample sizes have revealed associations between blood DNA methylation and neuropsychopathology, however, large-scale epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) are needed to investigate the utility of DNA methylation profiling as a peripheral marker for the brain. Here, in an analysis of eleven international cohorts, totalling 3337 individuals, we report epigenome-wide meta-analyses of blood DNA methylation with volumes of the hippocampus, thalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)-three subcortical regions selected for their associations with disease and heritability and volumetric variability. Analyses of individual CpGs revealed genome-wide significant associations with hippocampal volume at two loci. No significant associations were found for analyses of thalamus and nucleus accumbens volumes. Cluster-based analyses revealed additional differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with hippocampal volume. DNA methylation at these loci affected expression of proximal genes involved in learning and memory, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, fatty acid metabolism and type-2 diabetes. These DNA methylation marks, their interaction with genetic variants and their impact on gene expression offer new insights into the relationship between epigenetic variation and brain structure and may provide the basis for biomarker discovery in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric conditions.
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2.
  • Khan, Wasim, et al. (författare)
  • A Multi-Cohort Study of ApoE epsilon 4 and Amyloid-beta Effects on the Hippocampus in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 56:3, s. 1159-1174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has been consistently shown to modulate the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, using an AD and normal aging dataset primarily consisting of three AD multi-center studies (n = 1,781), we compared the effect of APOE and amyloid-beta (A beta) on baseline hippocampal volumes in AD patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, and healthy controls. A large sample of healthy adolescents (n = 1,387) was also used to compare hippocampal volumes between APOE groups. Subjects had undergone a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and APOE genotyping. Hippocampal volumes were processed using FreeSurfer. In the AD and normal aging dataset, hippocampal comparisons were performed in each APOE group and in epsilon 4 carriers with positron emission tomography (PET) A beta who were dichotomized (A beta+/A beta-) using previous cut-offs. We found a linear reduction in hippocampal volumes with epsilon 4 carriers possessing the smallest volumes, epsilon 3 carriers possessing intermediate volumes, and epsilon 2 carriers possessing the largest volumes. Moreover, AD and MCI epsilon 4 carriers possessed the smallest hippocampal volumes and control epsilon 2 carriers possessed the largest hippocampal volumes. Subjects with both APOE epsilon 4 and A beta positivity had the lowest hippocampal volumes when compared to A beta-epsilon 4 carriers, suggesting a synergistic relationship between APOE epsilon 4 and A beta. However, we found no hippocampal volume differences between APOE groups in healthy 14-year-old adolescents. Our findings suggest that the strongest neuroanatomic effect of APOE epsilon 4 on the hippocampus is observed in AD and groups most at risk of developing the disease, whereas hippocampi of old and young healthy individuals remain unaffected.
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3.
  • Tay, Nicole, et al. (författare)
  • Allele-Specific Methylation of SPDEF : A Novel Moderator of Psychosocial Stress and Substance Abuse
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - : AMER PSYCHIATRIC PUBLISHING, INC. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 176:2, s. 146-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Psychosocial stress is a key risk factor for substance abuse among adolescents. Recently, epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation have emerged as potential mechanisms that could mediate this relationship. The authors conducted a genome-wide methylation analysis to investigate whether differentially methylated regions are associated with psychosocial stress in an adolescent population.Methods: A methylome-wide analysis of differentially methylated regions was used to examine a sample of 1,287 14-year-old adolescents (50.7% of them female) from the European IMAGEN study. The Illumina 450k array was used to assess DNA methylation, pyrosequencing was used for technical replication, and linear regression analyses were used to identify associations with psychosocial stress and substance use (alcohol and tobacco). Findings were replicated by pyrosequencing a test sample of 413 participants from the IMAGEN study.Results: Hypermethylation in the sterile alpha motif/pointed domain containing the ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) gene locus was associated with a greater number of stressful life events in an allele-dependent way. Among individuals with the minor G-allele, SPDEF methylation moderated the association between psychosocial stress and substance abuse. SPDEF methylation interacted with lifetime stress in gray matter volume in the right cuneus, which in turn was associated with the frequency of alcohol and tobacco use. SPDEF was involved in the regulation of trans-genes linked to substance use.Conclusions: Taken together, the study findings describe a novel epigenetic mechanism that helps explain how psychosocial stress exposure influences adolescent substance abuse.
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4.
  • Ruggeri, Barbara, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Protein Phosphatase PPM1G With Alcohol Use Disorder and Brain Activity During Behavioral Control in a Genome-Wide Methylation Analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 172:6, s. 543-552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The genetic component of alcohol use disorder is substantial, but monozygotic twin discordance indicates a role for nonheritable differences that could be mediated by epigenetics. Despite growing evidence associating epigenetics and psychiatric disorders, it is unclear how epigenetics, particularly DNA methylation, relate to brain function and behavior, including drinking behavior. Method: The authors carried out a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of 18 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for alcohol use disorder and validated differentially methylated regions. After validation, the authors characterized these differentially methylated regions using personality trait assessment and functional MRI in a sample of 499 adolescents. Results: Hypermethylation in the 3'-protein-phosphatase-1G (PPM1G) gene locus was associated with alcohol use disorder. The authors found association of PPM1G hypermethylation with early escalation of alcohol use and increased impulsiveness. They also observed association of PPM1G hypermethylation with increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent response in the right subthalamic nucleus during an impulsiveness task. Conclusions: Overall, the authors provide first evidence for an epigenetic marker associated with alcohol consumption and its underlying neurobehavioral phenotype.
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5.
  • Hampel, Harald, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: academic, industry and regulatory perspectives.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature reviews. Drug discovery. - 1474-1784. ; 9:7, s. 560-74
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Advances in therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease that lead to even small delays in onset and progression of the condition would significantly reduce the global burden of the disease. To effectively test compounds for Alzheimer's disease and bring therapy to individuals as early as possible there is an urgent need for collaboration between academic institutions, industry and regulatory organizations for the establishment of standards and networks for the identification and qualification of biological marker candidates. Biomarkers are needed to monitor drug safety, to identify individuals who are most likely to respond to specific treatments, to stratify presymptomatic patients and to quantify the benefits of treatments. Biomarkers that achieve these characteristics should enable objective business decisions in portfolio management and facilitate regulatory approval of new therapies.
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6.
  • Hampel, Harald, et al. (författare)
  • Core candidate neurochemical and imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279. ; 4:1, s. 38-48
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In the earliest clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) when symptoms are mild, clinical diagnosis can be difficult. AD pathology most likely precedes symptoms. Biomarkers can serve as early diagnostic indicators or as markers of preclinical pathologic change. Candidate biomarkers derived from structural and functional neuroimaging and those measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma show the greatest promise. Unbiased exploratory approaches, eg, proteomics or cortical thickness analysis, could yield novel biomarkers. The objective of this article was to review recent progress in selected imaging and neurochemical biomarkers for early diagnosis, classification, progression, and prediction of AD. METHODS: We performed a survey of recent research, focusing on core biomarker candidates in AD. RESULTS: A number of in vivo neurochemistry and neuroimaging techniques, which can reliably assess aspects of physiology, pathology, chemistry, and neuroanatomy, hold promise as biomarkers. These neurobiologic measures appear to relate closely to pathophysiologic, neuropathologic, and clinical data, such as hyperphosphorylation of tau, amyloid beta (Abeta) metabolism, lipid peroxidation, pattern and rate of atrophy, loss of neuronal integrity, functional and cognitive decline, as well as risk of future decline. Current advances in the neuroimaging of mediotemporal, neocortical, and subcortical areas of the brain of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD subjects are presented. CSF levels of Abeta42, tau, and hyperphosphorylated tau protein (p-tau) can distinguish subjects with MCI who are likely to progress to AD. They also show preclinical alterations that predict later development of early AD symptoms. Studies on plasma Abeta are not entirely consistent, but recent findings suggest that decreased plasma Abeta42 relative to Abeta40 might increase the risk of AD. Increased production of Abeta in aging is suggested by elevation of BACE1 protein and enzyme activity in the brain and CSF of subjects with MCI. CSF tau and p-tau are increased in MCI as well and show predictive value. Other biomarkers might indicate components of a cascade initiated by Abeta, such as oxidative stress or inflammation. These merit further study in MCI and earlier. CONCLUSIONS: A number of neuroimaging candidate markers are promising, such as hippocampus and entorhinal cortex volumes, basal forebrain nuclei, cortical thickness, deformation-based and voxel-based morphometry, structural and effective connectivity by using diffusion tensor imaging, tractography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. CSF Abeta42, BACE1, total tau, and p-tau are substantially altered in MCI and clinical AD. Other interesting novel marker candidates derived from blood are being currently proposed (phase I). Biomarker discovery through proteomic approaches requires further research. Large-scale international controlled multicenter trials (such as the U.S., European, Australian, and Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and the German Dementia Network) are engaged in phase III development of the core feasible imaging and CSF biomarker candidates in AD. Biomarkers are in the process of implementation as primary outcome variables into regulatory guideline documents regarding study design and approval for compounds claiming disease modification.
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7.
  • Mueller, Christian P., et al. (författare)
  • The Cortical Neuroimmune Regulator TANK Affects Emotional Processing and Enhances Alcohol Drinking : A Translational Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 29:4, s. 1736-1751
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol abuse is a major public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control regular drinking may help to reduce hazards of alcohol consumption. While immunological mechanisms have been related to alcohol drinking, most studies reported changes in immune function that are secondary to alcohol use. In this report, we analyse how the gene "TRAF family member-associated NF-kappa B activator" (TANK) affects alcohol drinking behavior. Based on our recent discovery in a large GWAS dataset that suggested an association of TANK, SNP rs197273, with alcohol drinking, we report that SNP rs197273 in TANK is associated both with gene expression (P = 1.16 x 10(-19)) and regional methylation (P = 5.90 x 10(-25)). A tank knock out mouse model suggests a role of TANK in alcohol drinking, anxiety-related behavior, as well as alcohol exposure induced activation of insular cortex NF-kappa B. Functional and structural neuroimaging studies among up to 1896 adolescents reveal that TANK is involved in the control of brain activity in areas of aversive interoceptive processing, including the insular cortex, but not in areas related to reinforcement, reward processing or impulsiveness. Our findings suggest that the cortical neuroimmune regulator TANK is associated with enhanced aversive emotional processing that better protects from the establishment of alcohol drinking behavior.
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8.
  • Ruggeri, Barbara, et al. (författare)
  • Methylation of OPRL1 mediates the effect of psychosocial stress on binge drinking in adolescents
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. - 0021-9630 .- 1469-7610. ; 9:6, s. 50-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Nociceptin is a key regulator linking environmental stress and alcohol drinking. In a genome-wide methylation analysis, we recently identified an association of a methylated region in the OPRL1 gene with alcohol-use disorders.METHODS: Here, we investigate the biological basis of this observation by analysing psychosocial stressors, methylation of the OPRL1 gene, brain response during reward anticipation and alcohol drinking in 660 fourteen-year-old adolescents of the IMAGEN study. We validate our findings in marchigian sardinian (msP) alcohol-preferring rats that are genetically selected for increased alcohol drinking and stress sensitivity.RESULTS: We found that low methylation levels in intron 1 of OPRL1 are associated with higher psychosocial stress and higher frequency of binge drinking, an effect mediated by OPRL1 methylation. In individuals with low methylation of OPRL1, frequency of binge drinking is associated with stronger BOLD response in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. In msP rats, we found that stress results in increased alcohol intake and decreased methylation of OPRL1 in the nucleus accumbens.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings describe an epigenetic mechanism that helps to explain how psychosocial stress influences risky alcohol consumption and reward processing, thus contributing to the elucidation of biological mechanisms underlying risk for substance abuse.
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