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Sökning: WFRF:(Bornberg Bauer Erich)

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1.
  • Huang, Yun, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptome profiling of immune tissues reveals habitat-specific gene expression between lake and river sticklebacks
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology. - 0962-1083 .- 1365-294X. ; 25:4, s. 943-958
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The observation of habitat-specific phenotypes suggests the action of natural selection. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has repeatedly colonized and adapted to diverse freshwater habitats across the northern hemisphere since the last glaciation, while giving rise to recurring phenotypes associated with specific habitats. Parapatric lake and river populations of sticklebacks harbour distinct parasite communities, a factor proposed to contribute to adaptive differentiation between these ecotypes. However, little is known about the transcriptional response to the distinct parasite pressure of those fish in a natural setting. Here, we sampled wild-caught sticklebacks across four geographical locations from lake and river habitats differing in their parasite load. We compared gene expression profiles between lake and river populations using 77 whole-transcriptome libraries from two immune-relevant tissues, the head kidney and the spleen. Differential expression analyses revealed 139 genes with habitat-specific expression patterns across the sampled population pairs. Among the 139 differentially expressed genes, eight are annotated with an immune function and 42 have been identified as differentially expressed in previous experimental studies in which fish have been immune challenged. Together, these findings reinforce the hypothesis that parasites contribute to adaptation of sticklebacks in lake and river habitats.
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2.
  • Kaduk, Mateusz, 1985- (författare)
  • Functional Inference from Orthology and Domain Architecture
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Proteins are the basic building blocks of all living organisms. They play a central role in determining the structure of living beings and are required for essential chemical reactions. One of the main challenges in bioinformatics is to characterize the function of all proteins. The problem of understanding protein function can be approached by understanding their evolutionary history. Orthology analysis plays an important role in studying the evolutionary relation of proteins. Proteins are termed orthologs if they derive from a single gene in the species' last common ancestor, i.e. if they were separated by a speciation event. Orthologs are useful because they retain their function more often than other homologs. Inference of a complete set of orthologs for many species is computationally intensive. Currently, the fastest algorithms rely on graph-based approaches, which compare all-vs-all sequences and then cluster top hits into groups of orthologs. The initial step of performing all-vs-all comparisons is usually the primary computational challenge as it scales quadratically with the number of species. A new, more scalable and less computationally demanding method was developed to solve this problem without sacrificing accuracy. The Hieranoid 2 algorithm reduces computational complexity to almost linear by overcoming the necessity to perform all-vs-all similarity searches. The algorithm progresses along a known species tree, from leaves to root. Starting at the leaves, ortholog groups are predicted conventionally and then summarized at internal nodes to form pseudo-species. These pseudo-species are then re-used to search against other (pseudo-)species higher in the tree. This way the algorithm aggregates new ortholog groups hierarchically. The hierarchy is a natural structure to store and view large multi-species ortholog groups, and provides a complete picture of inferred evolutionary events. To facilitate explorative analysis of hierarchical groups of orthologs, a new online tool was created. The HieranoiDB website provides precomputed hierarchical groups of orthologs for a set of 66 species. It allows the user to search for orthology assignments using protein description, protein sequence, or species. Evolutionary events and meta information is added to the hierarchical groups of orthologs, which are shown graphically as interactive trees. This representation allows exploring, searching, and easier visual inspection of multi-species ortholog groups.The majority of orthology prediction methods focus on treating the whole protein sequence as a single evolutionary unit. However, proteins are often composed of individual units, called protein domains, that can have different evolutionary histories. To extend the full sequence based methodology to a domain-aware method, a new approach called Domainoid is proposed. Here, domains are extracted from full-length sequences and subjected to orthology inference. This allows Domainoid to find orthology that would be missed by a full sequence approach.Networks are a convenient graphical representation for showing a large number of functional associations between genes or proteins. They allow various analyses of graph properties, and can help visualize complex relationships. A framework for inferring comprehensive functional association networks was developed, called FunCoup. A major difference compared to other networks is FunCoup's extensive use of orthology relationships between species, which significantly boosts its coverage. Using naïve Bayesian classifiers to integrate 10 different evidence types and orthology transfer, FunCoup captures functional associations of many types, and provides comprehensive networks for 17 species across five gold-standards.
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3.
  • Liberles, David A., et al. (författare)
  • The interface of protein structure, protein biophysics, and molecular evolution
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Protein Science. - 0961-8368 .- 1469-896X. ; 21:6, s. 769-785
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The interface of protein structural biology, protein biophysics, molecular evolution, and molecular population genetics forms the foundations for a mechanistic understanding of many aspects of protein biochemistry. Current efforts in interdisciplinary protein modeling are in their infancy and the state-of-the art of such models is described. Beyond the relationship between amino acid substitution and static protein structure, protein function, and corresponding organismal fitness, other considerations are also discussed. More complex mutational processes such as insertion and deletion and domain rearrangements and even circular permutations should be evaluated. The role of intrinsically disordered proteins is still controversial, but may be increasingly important to consider. Protein geometry and protein dynamics as a deviation from static considerations of protein structure are also important. Protein expression level is known to be a major determinant of evolutionary rate and several considerations including selection at the mRNA level and the role of interaction specificity are discussed. Lastly, the relationship between modeling and needed high-throughput experimental data as well as experimental examination of protein evolution using ancestral sequence resurrection and in vitro biochemistry are presented, towards an aim of ultimately generating better models for biological inference and prediction.
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5.
  • Olsen, Jeanine L, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 530:7590, s. 331-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants.
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6.
  • Sadd, Ben M., et al. (författare)
  • The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 16:76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats.RESULTS: We report the high quality draft genome sequences of Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, two ecologically dominant bumblebees and widely utilized study species. Comparing these new genomes to those of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera and other Hymenoptera, we identify deeply conserved similarities, as well as novelties key to the biology of these organisms. Some honeybee genome features thought to underpin advanced eusociality are also present in bumblebees, indicating an earlier evolution in the bee lineage. Xenobiotic detoxification and immune genes are similarly depauperate in bumblebees and honeybees, and multiple categories of genes linked to social organization, including development and behavior, show high conservation. Key differences identified include a bias in bumblebee chemoreception towards gustation from olfaction, and striking differences in microRNAs, potentially responsible for gene regulation underlying social and other traits.CONCLUSIONS: These two bumblebee genomes provide a foundation for post-genomic research on these key pollinators and insect societies. Overall, gene repertoires suggest that the route to advanced eusociality in bees was mediated by many small changes in many genes and processes, and not by notable expansion or depauperation.
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8.
  • Werren, John H, et al. (författare)
  • Functional and evolutionary insights from the genomes of three parasitoid Nasonia species.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 327:5963, s. 343-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report here genome sequences and comparative analyses of three closely related parasitoid wasps: Nasonia vitripennis, N. giraulti, and N. longicornis. Parasitoids are important regulators of arthropod populations, including major agricultural pests and disease vectors, and Nasonia is an emerging genetic model, particularly for evolutionary and developmental genetics. Key findings include the identification of a functional DNA methylation tool kit; hymenopteran-specific genes including diverse venoms; lateral gene transfers among Pox viruses, Wolbachia, and Nasonia; and the rapid evolution of genes involved in nuclear-mitochondrial interactions that are implicated in speciation. Newly developed genome resources advance Nasonia for genetic research, accelerate mapping and cloning of quantitative trait loci, and will ultimately provide tools and knowledge for further increasing the utility of parasitoids as pest insect-control agents.
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9.
  • Yang, Gloria, et al. (författare)
  • Higher-order epistasis shapes the fitness landscape of a xenobiotic-degrading enzyme
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Chemical Biology. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1552-4450 .- 1552-4469. ; 15:11, s. 1120-1128
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Characterizing the adaptive landscapes that encompass the emergence of novel enzyme functions can provide molecular insights into both enzymatic and evolutionary mechanisms. Here, we combine ancestral protein reconstruction with biochemical, structural and mutational analyses to characterize the functional evolution of methyl-parathion hydrolase (MPH), an organophosphate-degrading enzyme. We identify five mutations that are necessary and sufficient for the evolution of MPH from an ancestral dihydrocoumarin hydrolase. In-depth analyses of the adaptive landscapes encompassing this evolutionary transition revealed that the mutations form a complex interaction network, defined in part by higher-order epistasis, that constrained the adaptive pathways available. By also characterizing the adaptive landscapes in terms of their functional activities towards three additional organophosphate substrates, we reveal that subtle differences in the polarity of the substrate substituents drastically alter the network of epistatic interactions. Our work suggests that the mutations function collectively to enable substrate recognition via subtle structural repositioning.
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