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Sökning: WFRF:(Bråbäck Lennart)

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1.
  • Al-Tamprouri, C., et al. (författare)
  • Cat and dog ownership during/after the first year of life and risk for sensitization and reported allergy symptoms at age 13
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Immunity Inflammation and Disease. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2050-4527. ; 7:4, s. 250-257
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Avoidance of pets as a strategy for preventing atopic diseases has been questioned. This study aimed to identify the risk of sensitization and allergic symptoms at age 13 in relation to dog- and cat-keeping during and after the first year of life. Methods The study included all children born at ostersund Hospital in Northern Sweden between February 1996 and January 1997 (n = 1231). At inclusion, parents were asked to answer questionnaires about lifestyle, including cat- and dog-keeping. Dog allergy, cat allergy, hay fever, and asthma were diagnosed based on parental reported allergic symptoms at 13 years of age (n = 834). The risks of sensitization or allergy in relation to dog- and cat-keeping during and after the first year of life were analyzed with logistic regression. To adjust for reverse causation, all subjects that had reported avoidance of pets due to allergic symptoms of the child or allergy in the family (n = 177) were excluded. Results Dog- or cat-keeping during the first year of life reduced the risk of sensitization to dog or cat allergens, respectively, and to birch and to at least one of the 10 allergens tested. Cat-keeping, both during and after the first year of life, reduced the risk of cat allergy and hay fever. Having a dog at home during the first year of life reduced the risk of dog and cat allergy, whereas dog-keeping after the first year of life did not affect allergic symptoms. Conclusions Cat ownership, either during or after the first year of life, may be a strategy for preventing the development of cat allergy and hay fever later in life. Dog ownership reduced the risk of sensitization to dog and birch allergen, and also the risk of cat and dog allergy, but had no effect on hay fever.
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2.
  • Bråbäck, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Migration and asthma medication in international adoptees and immigrant families in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - : Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 41:8, s. 1108-1115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Studies of asthma in migrant populations illustrate the effects of environmental changes. Objective In this register study we investigated the importance of exposure to a western lifestyle in different phases of development in Swedish residents with an origin in regions in the world where asthma usually is less prevalent. Methods The study population comprised 24 252 international adoptees, 47 986 foreign-born and 40 971 Swedish-born with foreign-born parents and 1 770 092 Swedish-born residents with Swedish-born parents (age 6-25 years). Purchased prescribed inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) during 2006 were used as an indicator of asthma. Results International adoptees and children born in Sweden by foreign-born parents had three-to fourfold higher rates of asthma medication compared with foreign-born children. The odds ratios (ORs) of asthma medication declined persistently with age at immigration. For adoptees the ORs compared with infant adoptees were 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.85] for those adopted at 1-2 years, 0.51 (0.42-0.61) at 3-4 years and 0.35 (0.27-0.44) after 5 or more years of age. Corresponding ORs for foreign-born children with foreign-born parents immigrating at 0-4 years, at 5-9 years, at 10-14 years and at 15 years or more were 0.73 (0.63-0.86), 0.56 (CI 0.46-0.68) and 0.35 (CI 0.28-0.43), respectively. The ORs were only marginally affected by adjustment for region of birth and socio-economic indicators. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Age at immigration is a more important determinant of purchased ICS than population of origin. This indicates the importance of environmental factors for asthma in schoolchildren and young adults.
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3.
  • Mai, Xiaomei, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • High body mass index, asthma and allergy in Swedish schoolchildren participating in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood : phase II
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 92:10, s. 1144-1148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To assess the relationship between high body mass index (BMI) and asthma and atopic manifestations in 12-y-old children.Methods: The relationship between high BMI and asthma symptoms was studied in 457 sixth-grade children, with (n= 161) and without (n= 296) current wheeze. High BMI was defined as ±75th percentile of gender-specific BMI reference values for Swedish children at 12 y of age; overweight as a subgroup of high BMI was defined as ±95th percentile. Children with a BMI >75th percentile served as controls. Questionnaires were used to assess asthmatic and allergic symptoms, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by hypertonic saline provocation tests.Results: Current wheeze was associated with high BMI after adjustment for confounding factors (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.5) and overweight had an even more pronounced effect (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.6). In addition, asthma severity was associated with high BMI, as evaluated by the number of wheezing episodes during the previous 12 mo among the wheezing children (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–4.0). There was also an association between high BMI and the presence of eczema in wheezing children (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0–4.6). However, high BMI was not significantly associated with hay fever, positive skin prick tests or bronchial hyperresponsiveness.Conclusion: The study confirms and extends a previously observed relationship between BMI and the presence of wheezing and asthma.
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4.
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
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5.
  • Bråbäck, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Atopy among schoolchildren in northern and southern Sweden in relation to pet ownership and early life events
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. - 0905-6157 .- 1399-3038. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies have suggested a higher prevalence of asthma and allergies in northern, as compared to southern. Scandinavia. The aim of this study was to evaluate regional differences in atopy in relation to pet ownership and certain early life events among schoolchildren. (n=2108) aged 10-11 years from Link÷ping in southern Sweden and ╓stersund in northern Sweden. The parents completed a questionnaire, comprising questions on home environment, heredity, socio-economic conditions, and the core questions on symptoms from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. The children were skin-prick tested to eight common inhalant allergens. Information on maternal smoking habits, gestational age, and anthropometric measures were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. The prevalence of atopic symptoms and sensitization to pollen were similar in ╓stersund and in Link÷ping. A higher prevalence of sensitization to animal dander among children in ╓stersund could be linked to a higher occurrence of pets in the community. Current cat ownership was related to less sensitivity to cat allergen but only in children with an atopic heredity. Ponderal index >30 kg/m3 was related to an increased risk of atopic sensitization, both in Link÷ping (adjusted odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.0) and in ╓stersund (adjusted odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.5). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was related to an increased risk of atopic sensitization among children in Link÷ping, whereas current smoking was associated with a decreased risk of sensitization in -stersund. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a high occurrence of pets in the community was associated with sensitization, whereas atopic symptoms were essentially unaffected. This study has also suggested an association between body size at birth and atopic sensitization at 10-11 years of age.
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6.
  • Dratva, J., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of self-reported figural drawing scales against anthropometric measurements in adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1368-9800 .- 1475-2727. ; 19:11, s. 1944-1951
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate figural drawing scales depicting extremely lean to extremely obese subjects to obtain proxies for BMI and waist circumference in postal surveys. Design: Reported figural scales and anthropometric data from a large population-based postal survey were validated with measured anthropometric data from the same individuals by means of receiver-operating characteristic curves and a BMI prediction model. Setting: Adult participants in a Scandinavian cohort study first recruited in 1990 and followed up twice since. Subjects: Individuals aged 38-66 years with complete data for BMI (n 1580) and waist circumference (n 1017). Results: Median BMI and waist circumference increased exponentially with increasing figural scales. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses showed a high predictive ability to identify individuals with BMI > 25.0 kg/m(2) in both sexes. The optimal figural scales for identifying overweight or obese individuals with a correct detection rate were 4 and 5 in women, and 5 and 6 in men, respectively. The prediction model explained 74% of the variance among women and 62% among men. Predicted BMI differed only marginally from objectively measured BMI. Conclusions: Figural drawing scales explained a large part of the anthropometric variance in this population and showed a high predictive ability for identifying overweight/obese subjects. These figural scales can be used with confidence as proxies of BMI and waist circumference in settings where objective measures are not feasible.
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7.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Being overweight in childhood, puberty, or early adulthood : Changing asthma risk in the next generation?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 145:3, s. 791-799
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Overweight status and asthma have increased during the last decades. Being overweight is a known risk factor for asthma, but it is not known whether it might also increase asthma risk in the next generation.Objective: We aimed to examine whether parents being overweight in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood is associated with asthma in their offspring.Methods: We included 6347 adult offspring (age, 18-52 years) investigated in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) multigeneration study of 2044 fathers and 2549 mothers (age, 37-66 years) investigated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) study. Associations of parental overweight status at age 8 years, puberty, and age 30 years with offspring's childhood overweight status (potential mediator) and offspring's asthma with or without nasal allergies (outcomes) was analyzed by using 2-level logistic regression and 2-level multinomial logistic regression, respectively. Counterfactual-based mediation analysis was performed to establish whether observed associations were direct or indirect effects mediated through the offspring's own overweight status.Results: We found statistically significant associations between both fathers' and mothers' childhood overweight status and offspring's childhood overweight status (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.45-3.42] and 2.45 [95% CI, 1.86-3.22], respectively). We also found a statistically significant effect of fathers' onset of being overweight in puberty on offspring's asthma without nasal allergies (relative risk ratio, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.23-4.33]). This effect was direct and not mediated through the offspring's own overweight status. No effect on offspring's asthma with nasal allergies was found.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that metabolic factors long before conception can increase asthma risk and that male puberty is a time window of particular importance for offspring's health.
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8.
  • Nordeide Kuiper, I., et al. (författare)
  • Lifelong exposure to air pollution and greenness in relation to asthma, rhinitis and lung function in adulthood
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environmental International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To investigate if air pollution and greenness exposure from birth till adulthood affects adult asthma, rhinitis and lung function. Methods: We analysed data from 3428 participants (mean age 28) in the RHINESSA study in Norway and Sweden. Individual mean annual residential exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) were averaged across susceptibility windows (0–10 years, 10–18 years, lifetime, adulthood (year before study participation)) and analysed in relation to physician diagnosed asthma (ever/allergic/non-allergic), asthma attack last 12 months, current rhinitis and low lung function (lower limit of normal (LLN), z-scores of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC below 1.64). We performed logistic regression for asthma attack, rhinitis and LLN lung function (clustered with family and study centre), and conditional logistic regression with a matched case-control design for ever/allergic/non-allergic asthma. Multivariable models were adjusted for parental asthma and education. Results: Childhood, adolescence and adult exposure to NO2, PM10 and O3 were associated with an increased risk of asthma attacks (ORs between 1.29 and 2.25), but not with physician diagnosed asthma. For rhinitis, adulthood exposures seemed to be most important. Childhood and adolescence exposures to PM2.5 and O3 were associated with lower lung function, in particular FEV1 (range ORs 2.65 to 4.21). No associations between NDVI and asthma or rhinitis were revealed, but increased NDVI was associated with lower FEV1 and FVC in all susceptibility windows (range ORs 1.39 to 1.74). Conclusions: Air pollution exposures in childhood, adolescence and adulthood were associated with increased risk of asthma attacks, rhinitis and low lung function in adulthood. Greenness was not associated with asthma or rhinitis, but was a risk factor for low lung function. © 2020 The Authors
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9.
  • Pape, Kathrine, et al. (författare)
  • Agreement of offspring-reported parental smoking status : the RHINESSA generation study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BMC. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: With increasing interest in exposure effects across generations, it is crucial to assess the validity of information given on behalf of others.Aims: To compare adult's report of their parent’s smoking status against parent's own report and examine predictors for discrepant answers.Methods: We studied 7185 offspring (18-51 years) and one of their parents, n = 5307 (27-67 years) participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Information about parent's smoking status during offspring's childhood and mother's smoking status during pregnancy was obtained by questionnaires from parents and their offspring. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and Cohen's Kappa [κ] for agreement using parent's own report as the gold standard. We performed logistic regression to examine if offspring's sex, age, educational level, asthma status, own smoking status or parental status, as well as the parent's sex and amount of smoking during childhood predicted disagreement.Results: The sensitivity for offspring's correct report of parent's smoking status during childhood (0-10 years) was 0.82 (95% CI 0.81–0.84), specificity was 0.95 (95% CI 0.95–0.96) and a good agreement was observed, κ = 0.79 (95% CI 0.78–0.80). Offspring's report of mothers' smoking status during pregnancy showed a lower sensitivity, 0.66 (95% CI 0.60–0.71), a slightly lower specificity, 0.92 (95% CI 0.90–0.95) and a good agreement, κ = 0.61 (95% CI 0.55–0.67). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, offspring not having children was a predictor for discrepant answers (odds ratio [OR] 2.11 [95% CI 1.21–3.69]). Low amount of parents' tobacco consumption, < 10 cigarettes/day (OR 2.72 [95% CI 1.71–4.31]) also predicted disagreement compared to ≥10 cigarettes per day, and so did offspring's reports of fathers' smoking status (OR 1.73 [95% CI 1.09–2.74]) compared to mothers' smoking status. Offspring's sex, asthma status, educational level, smoking status or age was not related to discrepant answers.Conclusions: Adults report their parent's smoking status during their childhood, as well as their mothers' smoking status when pregnant with them, quite accurately. In the absence of parents' direct report, offspring's reports could be valuable.
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10.
  • Pape, Kathrine, et al. (författare)
  • Parental occupational exposure pre- and post-conception and development of asthma in offspring
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 49:6, s. 1856-1869
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: While direct effects of occupational exposures on an individual's respiratory health are evident, a new paradigm is emerging on the possible effects of preconception occupational exposure on respiratory health in offspring. We aimed to study the association between parental occupational exposure starting before conception and asthma in their offspring (at 0-15 years of age).Methods: We studied 3985 offspring participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Their mothers or fathers (n = 2931) previously participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Information was obtained from questionnaires on parental job history pre- and post-conception which was linked to an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). We assessed the association between parental occupational exposure and offspring asthma, applying logistic regression models, clustered by family and adjusted for study centre, offspring sex, parental characteristics (age, asthma onset, place of upbringing, smoking) and grandparents' level of education.Results: Parental occupational exposure to microorganisms, pesticides, allergens or reactive chemicals pre-conception or both pre- and post-conception was not related to offspring asthma; in general, subgroup analyses confirmed this result. However, maternal exposure both pre- and post-conception to allergens and reactive chemicals was associated with increased odds for early-onset asthma in offspring (0-3 years of age); odds ratio 1.70 (95% CI: 1.02-2.84) and 1.65 (95% CI: 0.98-2.77), respectively.Conclusions: This study did not find evidence that parental occupational exposure, defined by an asthma JEM before conception only or during pre- and post-conception vs non-exposed, was associated with offspring asthma.
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