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Sökning: WFRF:(Braak Heiko)

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  • Alafuzoff, Irina, et al. (författare)
  • Staging of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease : a study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Brain Pathology. - : Wiley. - 1015-6305 .- 1750-3639. ; 18:4, s. 484-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has been recognized that molecular classifications will form the basis for neuropathological diagnostic work in the future. Consequently, in order to reach a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau (HP-tau) and beta-amyloid protein in brain tissue must be unequivocal. In addition, the stepwise progression of pathology needs to be assessed. This paper deals exclusively with the regional assessment of AD-related HP-tau pathology. The objective was to provide straightforward instructions to aid in the assessment of AD-related immunohistochemically (IHC) detected HP-tau pathology and to test the concordance of assessments made by 25 independent evaluators. The assessment of progression in 7-microm-thick sections was based on assessment of IHC labeled HP-tau immunoreactive neuropil threads (NTs). Our results indicate that good agreement can be reached when the lesions are substantial, i.e., the lesions have reached isocortical structures (stage V-VI absolute agreement 91%), whereas when only mild subtle lesions were present the agreement was poorer (I-II absolute agreement 50%). Thus, in a research setting when the extent of lesions is mild, it is strongly recommended that the assessment of lesions should be carried out by at least two independent observers.
  • Braak, Heiko, et al. (författare)
  • Intraneuronal tau aggregation precedes diffuse plaque deposition, but amyloid-β changes occur before increases of tau in cerebrospinal fluid.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1432-0533 .- 0001-6322. ; 126:5, s. 631-641
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In comparison to the levels in age and gender-matched controls, reduced levels of pathological amyloid-β protein in cerebrospinal fluid routinely precede the onset of Alzheimer's disease-related symptoms by several years, whereas elevated soluble abnormal tau fractions (phosphorylated tau, total tau protein) in cerebrospinal fluid are detectable only with the onset and progression of clinical symptoms. This sequence of events in cerebrospinal fluid (amyloid-β changes detectable prior to abnormal tau changes) contrasts with that in which both proteins develop in the brain, where intraneuronal tau inclusions (pretangles, neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads) appear decades before the deposition of amyloid-β plaques (diffuse plaques, neuritic plaques). This viewpoint attempts to address questions arising in connection with this apparent sequential discrepancy-questions and issues for which there are currently no clear-cut answers.
  • Brenner, David, et al. (författare)
  • Hot-spot KIF5A mutations cause familial ALS
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 141, s. 688-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 x 10-3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p. Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor allele frequency = 3.40%; P = 1.28 x 10-7). Our study demonstrates that mutations located specifically in a C-terminal hotspot of KIF5A can cause a classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotype, and underline the involvement of intracellular transport processes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis.
  • Forsberg, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Endothelial damage, vascular bagging and remodeling of the microvascular bed in human microangiopathy with deep white matter lesions
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica communications. - : BioMed Central. - 2051-5960. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • White matter lesions (WMLs) are a common manifestation of small vessel disease (SVD) in the elderly population. They are associated with an enhanced risk of developing gait abnormalities, poor executive function, dementia, and stroke with high mortality. Hypoperfusion and the resulting endothelial damage are thought to contribute to the development of WMLs. The focus of the present study was the analysis of the microvascular bed in SVD patients with deep WMLs (DWMLs) by using double- and triple-label immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Simultaneous visualization of collagen IV (COLL4)-positive membranes and the endothelial glycocalyx in thick sections allowed us to identify endothelial recession in different types of string vessels, and two new forms of small vessel/capillary pathology, which we called vascular bagging and ghost string vessels. Vascular bags were pouches and tubes that were attached to vessel walls and were formed by multiple layers of COLL4-positive membranes. Vascular bagging was most severe in the DWMLs of cases with pure SVD (no additional vascular brain injury, VBI). Quantification of vascular bagging, string vessels, and the density/size of CD68-positive cells further showed widespread pathological changes in the frontoparietal and/or temporal white matter in SVD, including pure SVD and SVD with VBI, as well as a significant effect of the covariate age. Plasma protein leakage into vascular bags and the white matter parenchyma pointed to endothelial damage and basement membrane permeability. Hypertrophic IBA1-positive microglial cells and CD68-positive macrophages were found in white matter areas covered with networks of ghost vessels in SVD, suggesting phagocytosis of remnants of string vessels. However, the overall vessel density was not altered in our SVD cohort, which might result from continuous replacement of vessels. Our findings support the view that SVD is a progressive and generalized disease process, in which endothelial damage and vascular bagging drive remodeling of the microvasculature.
  • Itzhaki, Ruth F., et al. (författare)
  • Microbes and Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 51:4, s. 979-984
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We are researchers and clinicians working on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or related topics, and we write to express our concern that one particular aspect of the disease has been neglected, even though treatment based on it might slow or arrest AD progression. We refer to the many studies, mainly on humans, implicating specific microbes in the elderly brain, notably herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), Chlamydia pneumoniae, and several types of spirochaete, in the etiology of AD [1–4]. Fungal infection of AD brain [5, 6] has also been described, as well as abnormal microbiota in AD patient blood [7]. The first observations of HSV1 in AD brain were reported almost three decades ago [8]. The ever-increasing number of these studies (now about 100 on HSV1 alone) warrants re-evaluation of the infection and AD concept.AD is associated with neuronal loss and progressive synaptic dysfunction, accompanied by the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, a cleavage product of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), and abnormal forms of tau protein, markers that have been used as diagnostic criteria for the disease [9, 10]. These constitute the hallmarks of AD, but whether they are causes of AD or consequences is unknown. We suggest that these are indicators of an infectious etiology. In the case of AD, it is often not realized that microbes can cause chronic as well as acute diseases; that some microbes can remain latent in the body with the potential for reactivation, the effects of which might occur years after initial infection; and that people can be infected but not necessarily affected, such that ‘controls’, even if infected, are asymptomatic
  • Nelson, Peter T., et al. (författare)
  • Correlation of Alzheimer Disease Neuropathologic Changes With Cognitive Status : A Review of the Literature
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. - 0022-3069 .- 1554-6578. ; 71:5, s. 362-381
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clinicopathologic correlation studies are critically important for the field of Alzheimer disease (AD) research. Studies on human subjects with autopsy confirmation entail numerous potential biases that affect both their general applicability and the validity of the correlations. Many sources of data variability can weaken the apparent correlation between cognitive status and AD neuropathologic changes. Indeed, most persons in advanced old age have significant non-AD brain lesions that may alter cognition independently of AD. Worldwide research efforts have evaluated thousands of human subjects to assess the causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly, and these studies have been interpreted in different ways. We review the literature focusing on the correlation of AD neuropathologic changes (i.e. beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) with cognitive impairment. We discuss the various patterns of brain changes that have been observed in elderly individuals to provide a perspective for understanding AD clinicopathologic correlation and conclude that evidence from many independent research centers strongly supports the existence of a specific disease, as defined by the presence of AA plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Although AA plaques may play a key role in AD pathogenesis, the severity of cognitive impairment correlates best with the burden of neocortical neurofibrillary tangles.
  • Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz, et al. (författare)
  • Histological correlates of postmortem ultra-high-resolution single-section MRI in cortical cerebral microinfarcts
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica communications. - : Springer Nature. - 2051-5960. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The identification of cerebral microinfarctions with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological methods remains challenging in aging and dementia. Here, we matched pathological changes in the microvasculature of cortical cerebral microinfarcts to MRI signals using single 100 μm-thick histological sections scanned with ultra-high-resolution 11.7 T MRI. Histologically, microinfarcts were located in superficial or deep cortical layers or transcortically, compatible with the pattern of layer-specific arteriolar blood supply of the cerebral cortex. Contrary to acute microinfarcts, at chronic stages the core region of microinfarcts showed pallor with extracellular accumulation of lipofuscin and depletion of neurons, a dense meshwork of collagen 4-positive microvessels with numerous string vessels, CD68-positive macrophages and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. In MRI scans, cortical microinfarcts at chronic stages, called chronic cortical microinfarcts here, gave hypointense signals in T1-weighted and hyperintense signals in T2-weighted images when thinning of the tissue and cavitation and/or prominent iron accumulation were present. Iron accumulation in chronic microinfarcts, histologically verified with Prussian blue staining, also produced strong hypointense T2*-weighted signals. In summary, the microinfarct core was occupied by a dense microvascular meshwork with string vessels, which was invaded by macrophages and astroglia and contained various degrees of iron accumulation. While postmortem ultra-high-resolution single-section imaging improved MRI-histological matching and the structural characterization of chronic cortical cerebral microinfarcts, miniscule microinfarcts without thinning or iron accumulation could not be detected with certainty in the MRI scans. Moreover, string vessels at the infarct margin indicate disturbances in the microcirculation in and around microinfarcts, which might be exploitable in the diagnostics of cortical cerebral microinfarcts with MRI in vivo.
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  • Resultat 1-8 av 8

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