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Sökning: WFRF:(Braback L.)

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  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
  • Annus, T, et al. (författare)
  • Wheezing in relation to atopy and environmental factors in Estonian and Swedish schoolchildren
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 31:12, s. 1846-1853
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is significantly lower in post socialist Eastern Europe than in Western industrialized countries. The reason for this difference is largely unknown. Different types of childhood wheezing could be related to different risk factors. Objective: To compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, asthma and atopic diseases among Estonian and Swedish schoolchildren and to evaluate characteristics for wheezing in the two countries. Methods: In a prevalence study, population-based random samples of 10-11-year-old schoolchildren in Tallinn (n = 979), Estonia and in Link÷ping (n = 911) and ╓stersund (n = 1197), Sweden were studied by a parental questionnaire and skin prick tests (SPT). All 275 children with wheeze in the past 12 months and 710 randomly selected controls within the original cohorts were invited to a case-control study involving a parental questionnaire, examination for flexural dermatitis and bronchial challenge with hypertonic saline. The study adhered to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase II protocol. Results: The prevalence of current wheezing was similar (8-10%) in the three centres, while diagnosed asthma and atopic symptoms were more common in Sweden and cold-related respiratory symptoms were more prevalent in Estonia. Frequent wheezing was more common in Sweden than in Estonia (but significantly so only in ╓stersund). Wheezing children in Sweden had a high rate of positive SPT (49% in Link÷ping and 58% in ╓stersund) bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) (48% in Link÷ping and ╓stersund) and anti-asthmatic treatment (63% in Link÷ping and 81% in ╓stersund). In Estonia, the proportion of wheezing children with positive SPT, BHR and anti-asthmatic treatment was only 26%, 13% and 17%, respectively. Domestic crowding was inversely related to wheezing in one of the study areas (╓stersund). The mean baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was higher in Estonia than in Sweden, both in wheezing and non-wheezing children. Conclusions: Our study suggested that although wheezing symptoms were equally common in Estonia and Sweden, they were less severe in Estonia. More frequent symptoms and a high rate of atopy, BHR and anti-asthmatic medication characterized wheezing children in Sweden. In contrast, BHR, atopy and medication were uncommon among wheezing children in Estonia.
  • Mai, Xiaomei, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • High body mass index, asthma and allergy in Swedish schoolchildren participating in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood : phase II
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 92:10, s. 1144-1148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To assess the relationship between high body mass index (BMI) and asthma and atopic manifestations in 12-y-old children.Methods: The relationship between high BMI and asthma symptoms was studied in 457 sixth-grade children, with (n= 161) and without (n= 296) current wheeze. High BMI was defined as ±75th percentile of gender-specific BMI reference values for Swedish children at 12 y of age; overweight as a subgroup of high BMI was defined as ±95th percentile. Children with a BMI >75th percentile served as controls. Questionnaires were used to assess asthmatic and allergic symptoms, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by hypertonic saline provocation tests.Results: Current wheeze was associated with high BMI after adjustment for confounding factors (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.5) and overweight had an even more pronounced effect (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.6). In addition, asthma severity was associated with high BMI, as evaluated by the number of wheezing episodes during the previous 12 mo among the wheezing children (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–4.0). There was also an association between high BMI and the presence of eczema in wheezing children (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0–4.6). However, high BMI was not significantly associated with hay fever, positive skin prick tests or bronchial hyperresponsiveness.Conclusion: The study confirms and extends a previously observed relationship between BMI and the presence of wheezing and asthma.
  • Pape, Kathrine, et al. (författare)
  • Agreement of offspring-reported parental smoking status : the RHINESSA generation study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BMC. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: With increasing interest in exposure effects across generations, it is crucial to assess the validity of information given on behalf of others.Aims: To compare adult's report of their parent’s smoking status against parent's own report and examine predictors for discrepant answers.Methods: We studied 7185 offspring (18-51 years) and one of their parents, n = 5307 (27-67 years) participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Information about parent's smoking status during offspring's childhood and mother's smoking status during pregnancy was obtained by questionnaires from parents and their offspring. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and Cohen's Kappa [κ] for agreement using parent's own report as the gold standard. We performed logistic regression to examine if offspring's sex, age, educational level, asthma status, own smoking status or parental status, as well as the parent's sex and amount of smoking during childhood predicted disagreement.Results: The sensitivity for offspring's correct report of parent's smoking status during childhood (0-10 years) was 0.82 (95% CI 0.81–0.84), specificity was 0.95 (95% CI 0.95–0.96) and a good agreement was observed, κ = 0.79 (95% CI 0.78–0.80). Offspring's report of mothers' smoking status during pregnancy showed a lower sensitivity, 0.66 (95% CI 0.60–0.71), a slightly lower specificity, 0.92 (95% CI 0.90–0.95) and a good agreement, κ = 0.61 (95% CI 0.55–0.67). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, offspring not having children was a predictor for discrepant answers (odds ratio [OR] 2.11 [95% CI 1.21–3.69]). Low amount of parents' tobacco consumption, < 10 cigarettes/day (OR 2.72 [95% CI 1.71–4.31]) also predicted disagreement compared to ≥10 cigarettes per day, and so did offspring's reports of fathers' smoking status (OR 1.73 [95% CI 1.09–2.74]) compared to mothers' smoking status. Offspring's sex, asthma status, educational level, smoking status or age was not related to discrepant answers.Conclusions: Adults report their parent's smoking status during their childhood, as well as their mothers' smoking status when pregnant with them, quite accurately. In the absence of parents' direct report, offspring's reports could be valuable.
  • Pape, Kathrine, et al. (författare)
  • Parental occupational exposure pre- and post-conception and development of asthma in offspring
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 49:6, s. 1856-1869
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: While direct effects of occupational exposures on an individual's respiratory health are evident, a new paradigm is emerging on the possible effects of preconception occupational exposure on respiratory health in offspring. We aimed to study the association between parental occupational exposure starting before conception and asthma in their offspring (at 0-15 years of age).Methods: We studied 3985 offspring participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Their mothers or fathers (n = 2931) previously participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Information was obtained from questionnaires on parental job history pre- and post-conception which was linked to an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). We assessed the association between parental occupational exposure and offspring asthma, applying logistic regression models, clustered by family and adjusted for study centre, offspring sex, parental characteristics (age, asthma onset, place of upbringing, smoking) and grandparents' level of education.Results: Parental occupational exposure to microorganisms, pesticides, allergens or reactive chemicals pre-conception or both pre- and post-conception was not related to offspring asthma; in general, subgroup analyses confirmed this result. However, maternal exposure both pre- and post-conception to allergens and reactive chemicals was associated with increased odds for early-onset asthma in offspring (0-3 years of age); odds ratio 1.70 (95% CI: 1.02-2.84) and 1.65 (95% CI: 0.98-2.77), respectively.Conclusions: This study did not find evidence that parental occupational exposure, defined by an asthma JEM before conception only or during pre- and post-conception vs non-exposed, was associated with offspring asthma.
  • Riikjarv, M.-A., et al. (författare)
  • Similar prevalence of respiratory symptoms and atopy in estonian schoolchildren with changing lifestyle over 4 yrs
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 16:1, s. 86-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prevalence of allergic sensitization and clinical manifestations is low in Eastern Europe, despite a continuous increase in industrialized countries with a market economy. The aim of the present study was to study changes in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and atopic sensitization over time among schoolchildren in Estonia, in relation to environmental changes as the country transformed into a market economy. A cross-sectional study of 10-yr-old children was carried out between October 1996 and April 1997, employing a questionnaire regarding the prevalence of wheezing, rhinitis and itching rash (n=979) and skin-prick tests with seven inhalant allergens (n=640). The results were compared with those of a similar study performed in 19921993. The 12-month prevalence of wheeze was 8.3%, as compared to 9.4% in 1992-1993 (NS) and of asthma was 2.5 versus 3.2% (NS). The prevalence of a positive skin-prick test result was 14.3% in both studies. Furthermore, the prevalence of sensitivity to the individual allergens was similar, except for a significantly higher prevalence of dog sensitivity in 1996-1997 (4.7 versus 2.0%). The prevalence of respiratory and other potentially allergic symptoms, as well as the prevalence of atopic sensitization, remains low in Estonian 10-yr-old children, despite a changing lifestyle over the past 4 yrs. This could indicate that the time period was too short for environmental changes to affect the prevalence of allergy, or alternatively that risk factors associated with a 'western lifestyle' are of particular significance earlier in life. (C)ERS Journals Ltd 2000.
  • Bråbäck, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Atopy among schoolchildren in northern and southern Sweden in relation to pet ownership and early life events
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. - 0905-6157 .- 1399-3038. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies have suggested a higher prevalence of asthma and allergies in northern, as compared to southern. Scandinavia. The aim of this study was to evaluate regional differences in atopy in relation to pet ownership and certain early life events among schoolchildren. (n=2108) aged 10-11 years from Link÷ping in southern Sweden and ╓stersund in northern Sweden. The parents completed a questionnaire, comprising questions on home environment, heredity, socio-economic conditions, and the core questions on symptoms from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. The children were skin-prick tested to eight common inhalant allergens. Information on maternal smoking habits, gestational age, and anthropometric measures were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. The prevalence of atopic symptoms and sensitization to pollen were similar in ╓stersund and in Link÷ping. A higher prevalence of sensitization to animal dander among children in ╓stersund could be linked to a higher occurrence of pets in the community. Current cat ownership was related to less sensitivity to cat allergen but only in children with an atopic heredity. Ponderal index >30 kg/m3 was related to an increased risk of atopic sensitization, both in Link÷ping (adjusted odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.0) and in ╓stersund (adjusted odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.5). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was related to an increased risk of atopic sensitization among children in Link÷ping, whereas current smoking was associated with a decreased risk of sensitization in -stersund. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a high occurrence of pets in the community was associated with sensitization, whereas atopic symptoms were essentially unaffected. This study has also suggested an association between body size at birth and atopic sensitization at 10-11 years of age.
  • Bråbäck, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Migration and asthma medication in international adoptees and immigrant families in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - : Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 41:8, s. 1108-1115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Studies of asthma in migrant populations illustrate the effects of environmental changes. Objective In this register study we investigated the importance of exposure to a western lifestyle in different phases of development in Swedish residents with an origin in regions in the world where asthma usually is less prevalent. Methods The study population comprised 24 252 international adoptees, 47 986 foreign-born and 40 971 Swedish-born with foreign-born parents and 1 770 092 Swedish-born residents with Swedish-born parents (age 6-25 years). Purchased prescribed inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) during 2006 were used as an indicator of asthma. Results International adoptees and children born in Sweden by foreign-born parents had three-to fourfold higher rates of asthma medication compared with foreign-born children. The odds ratios (ORs) of asthma medication declined persistently with age at immigration. For adoptees the ORs compared with infant adoptees were 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.85] for those adopted at 1-2 years, 0.51 (0.42-0.61) at 3-4 years and 0.35 (0.27-0.44) after 5 or more years of age. Corresponding ORs for foreign-born children with foreign-born parents immigrating at 0-4 years, at 5-9 years, at 10-14 years and at 15 years or more were 0.73 (0.63-0.86), 0.56 (CI 0.46-0.68) and 0.35 (CI 0.28-0.43), respectively. The ORs were only marginally affected by adjustment for region of birth and socio-economic indicators. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Age at immigration is a more important determinant of purchased ICS than population of origin. This indicates the importance of environmental factors for asthma in schoolchildren and young adults.
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