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Sökning: WFRF:(Brand JS)

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  • Ehret, Georg B., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 478:7367, s. 103-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events(3). This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
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  • Brand, Judith, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal smoking during pregnancy and fractures in offspring : national register based sibling comparison study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1756-1833. ; 368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on fractures in offspring during different developmental stages of life.DESIGN: National register based birth cohort study with a sibling comparison design.SETTING: Sweden.PARTICIPANTS: 1 680 307 people born in Sweden between 1983 and 2000 to women who smoked (n=377 367, 22.5%) and did not smoke (n=1 302 940) in early pregnancy. Follow-up was until 31 December 2014.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Fractures by attained age up to 32 years.RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 21.1 years, 377 970 fractures were observed (the overall incidence rate for fracture standardised by calendar year of birth was 11.8 per 1000 person years). The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of fracture in offspring differed by attained age. Maternal smoking was associated with a higher rate of fractures in offspring before 1 year of age in the entire cohort (birth year standardised fracture rates in those exposed and unexposed to maternal smoking were 1.59 and 1.28 per 1000 person years, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders the hazard ratio for maternal smoking compared with no smoking was 1.27 (95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.45). This association followed a dose dependent pattern (compared with no smoking, hazard ratios for 1-9 cigarettes/day and >= 10 cigarettes/day were 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.39) and 1.41 (1.18 to 1.69), respectively) and persisted in within-sibship comparisons although with wider confidence intervals (compared with no smoking, 1.58 (1.01 to 2.46)). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was also associated with an increased fracture incidence in offspring from age 5 to 32 years in whole cohort analyses, but these associations did not follow a dose dependent gradient. In within-sibship analyses, which controls for confounding by measured and unmeasured shared familial factors, corresponding point estimates were all close to null. Maternal smoking was not associated with risk of fracture in offspring between the ages of 1 and 5 years in any of the models.CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with an increased rate of fracture during the first year of life but does not seem to have a long lasting biological influence on fractures later in childhood and up to early adulthood.
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  • Hedayati, E., et al. (författare)
  • Outcome and presentation of heart failure in breast cancer patients : Findings from a Swedish register-based study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes. - : Oxford University Press. - 2058-5225 .- 2058-1742. ; 6:2, s. 147-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Heart failure (HF) patients diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) may have a higher risk of death, and different HF presentation and treatment than patients without BC.Methods and results: A total of 14 998 women with incident HF (iHF) or prevalent HF (pHF) enrolled in the Swedish HF Registry within and after 1 month since HF diagnosis, respectively, between 2008 and 2013. Patients were linked with the National Patient-, Cancer-, and Cause-of-Death Registry. Two hundred and ninety-four iHF and 338 pHF patients with BC were age-matched to 1470 iHF and 1690 pHF patients without BC. Comorbidity and treatment characteristics were compared using the χ2 tests for categories. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among HF patients with and without BC. In the pHF group, BC patients had less often myocardial infarction (21.6% vs. 28.6%, P < 0.01) and received less often aspirin (47.6% vs. 55.1%, P = 0.01), coronary revascularization (11.8% vs. 16.2%, P < 0.01), or device therapy (0.9% vs. 3.0%, P = 0.03). After median follow-up of 2 years, risk of all-cause mortality (iHF: HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.83-1.29 and pHF: HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.79-1.12), cardiovascular mortality (iHF: HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.71-1.24 and pHF: HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.71-1.10), and HF mortality (iHF: HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.34-1.90 and pHF: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.43-1.29) were similar for patients with and without BC in the iHF and pHF groups.Conclusion: Risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in HF patients did not differ by BC status. Differences in pre-existing myocardial infarction and HF treatment among pHF patients with and without BC may suggest differences in pathogenesis of HF. 
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  • Michailidou, Kyriaki, et al. (författare)
  • Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7678, s. 92-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.
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  • Borgquist, Signe, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to insulin and volumetric mammographic density : Observational and genetic associations in the Karma study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Long-term insulin exposure has been implicated in breast cancer etiology, but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of insulin therapy with mammographic density (MD) as an intermediate phenotype for breast cancer and to assess associations with long-term elevated circulating insulin levels using a genetic score comprising 18 insulin-associated variants. Methods: We used data from the KARolinska MAmmography (Karma) project, a Swedish mammography screening cohort. Insulin-treated patients with type 1 (T1D, n = 122) and type 2 (T2D, n = 237) diabetes were identified through linkage with the Prescribed Drug Register and age-matched to 1771 women without diabetes. We assessed associations with treatment duration and insulin glargine use, and we further examined MD differences using non-insulin-treated T2D patients as an active comparator. MD was measured using a fully automated volumetric method, and analyses were adjusted for multiple potential confounders. Associations with the insulin genetic score were assessed in 9437 study participants without diabetes. Results: Compared with age-matched women without diabetes, insulin-treated T1D patients had greater percent dense (8.7% vs. 11.4%) and absolute dense volumes (59.7 vs. 64.7 cm3), and a smaller absolute nondense volume (615 vs. 491 cm3). Similar associations were observed for insulin-treated T2D, and estimates were not materially different in analyses comparing insulin-treated T2D patients with T2D patients receiving noninsulin glucose-lowering medication. In both T1D and T2D, the magnitude of the association with the absolute dense volume was highest for long-term insulin therapy (≥ 5 years) and the long-acting insulin analog glargine. No consistent evidence of differential associations by insulin treatment duration or type was found for percent dense and absolute nondense volumes. Genetically predicted insulin levels were positively associated with percent dense and absolute dense volumes, but not with the absolute nondense volume (percentage difference [95% CI] per 1-SD increase in insulin genetic score = 0.8 [0.0; 1.6], 0.9 [0.1; 1.8], and 0.1 [- 0.8; 0.9], respectively). Conclusions: The consistency in direction of association for insulin treatment and the insulin genetic score with the absolute dense volume suggest a causal influence of long-term increased insulin exposure on mammographic dense breast tissue.
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  • Brand, Judith, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Among Offspring
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JAMA pediatrics. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6203 .- 2168-6211. ; 175:6, s. 577-585
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) have been associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring, but the role of familial confounding in these associations is unclear.Objective: To investigate associations of maternal HDP with risks in offspring of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intellectual disability (ID), as well as variation in overall cognitive performance in offspring.Design, Setting, and Participants: This Swedish register-based study used data from a birth cohort divided into 1 085 024 individuals born between 1987 and 1996 and followed up until December 31, 2014, and 285 901 men born between 1982 and 1992 who attended assessments for military conscription, including a cognitive function test. Statistical analysis was performed from April 1, 2019, to June 1, 2020.Exposures: Diagnoses of HDP, which were provided by the Medical Birth Register.Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnoses of ASDs, ADHD, and ID were extracted from the National Patient Register. Cognitive function was assessed using written tests and summarized as a single 9-point score. Whole-cohort and within-sibship analyses were performed; the latter accounted for unmeasured familial confounding factors shared by siblings.Results: The study included 1 085 024 individuals (556 912 male participants [51.3%]) born between 1987 and 1996 and 285 901 men born between 1982 and 1992 who attended assessments for military conscription. The prevalence of maternal HDP was 4.0% in the 1987-1996 birth cohort (n = 42 980) and 5.1% in the military conscription cohort (n = 14 515). A total of 15 858 participants received a diagnosis of ASD, 36 852 received a diagnosis of ADHD, and 8454 received a diagnosis of ID. The mean (SD) cognitive score among the men in the conscription cohort was 5.1 (1.9). In whole-cohort analyses with multivariable adjustment, HDP were associated with offspring ASDs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13-1.31), ADHD (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.16), and ID (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.27-1.53). Analyses comparing siblings discordant for HDP were less statistically powered but indicated estimates of similar magnitude for ASDs (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.42) and possibly ADHD (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.95-1.24), but not for ID (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.83-1.29). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were associated with somewhat lower cognitive scores in whole-cohort analysis (mean difference comparing offspring exposed with those unexposed, -0.10; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.07), but in within-sibship analysis, the association was null (mean difference, 0.00; 95% CI, -0.09 to 0.08).Conclusions and Relevance: The study results suggest that HDP are associated with small increased risks of ASDs and possibly ADHD in offspring, whereas associations with ID and cognitive performance are likely confounded by shared familial (environmental or genetic) factors.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 67
  • [1]234567Nästa

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