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Sökning: WFRF:(Brodin N. Patrik)

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1.
  • Brodin, N Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Radiobiological risk estimates of adverse events and secondary cancer for proton and photon radiation therapy of pediatric medulloblastoma.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - : Taylor & Francis. - 1651-226X. ; 50:6, s. 806-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Introduction. The aim of this model study was to estimate and compare the risk of radiation-induced adverse late effects in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) treated with either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT), inversely-optimized arc therapy (RapidArc(®) (RA)) or spot-scanned intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The aim was also to find dose-volume toxicity parameters relevant to children undergoing RT to be used in the inverse planning of RA and IMPT, and to use in the risk estimations. Material and methods. Treatment plans were created for all three techniques on 10 pediatric patients that have been treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) at our institution in 2007-2009. Plans were generated for two prescription CSI doses, 23.4 Gy and 36 Gy. Risk estimates were based on childhood cancer survivor data when available and secondary cancer (SC) risks were estimated as a function of age at exposure and attained age according to the organ-equivalent dose (OED) concept. Results. Estimates of SC risk was higher for the RA plans and differentiable from the estimates for 3D CRT at attained ages above 40 years. The risk of developing heart failure, hearing loss, hypothyroidism and xerostomia was highest for the 3D CRT plans. The risks of all adverse effects were estimated as lowest for the IMPT plans, even when including secondary neutron (SN) irradiation with high values of the neutron radiation weighting factors (WR(neutron)). Conclusions. When comparing RA and 3D CRT treatment for pediatric MB it is a matter of comparing higher SC risk against higher risks of non-cancer adverse events. Considering time until onset of the different complications is necessary to fully assess patient benefit in such a comparison. The IMPT plans, including SN dose contribution, compared favorably to the photon techniques in terms of all radiobiological risk estimates.
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2.
  • Gram, D., et al. (författare)
  • Residual positioning errors and uncertainties for pediatric craniospinal irradiation and the impact of image guidance
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Radiation Oncology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1748-717X. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Optimal alignment is of utmost importance when treating pediatric patients with craniospinal irradiation (CSI), especially with regards to field junctions and multiple isocenters and techniques applying high dose gradients. Here, we investigated the setup errors and uncertainties for pediatric CSI using different setup verification protocols. Methods A total of 38 pediatric patients treated with CSI were identified for whom treatment records and setup images were available. The setup images were registered retrospectively to the reference image using an automated tool and matching on bony anatomy, subsequently, the impact of different correction protocols was simulated. Results For an action-level (AL)-protocol and a non-action level (NAL)-protocol, the translational residual setup error can be as large as 24 mm for an individual patient during a single fraction, and the rotational error as large as 6.1 degrees. With daily IGRT, the maximum setup errors were reduced to 1 mm translational and 5.4 degrees rotational versus 1 mm translational and 2.4 degrees rotational for 3- and 6- degrees of freedom (DoF) couch shifts, respectively. With a daily 6-DoF IGRT protocol for a wide field junction irradiation technique, the residual positioning uncertainty was below 1 mm and 1 degrees for translational and rotational directions, respectively. The largest rotational uncertainty was found for the patients' roll even though this was the least common type of rotational error, while the largest translational uncertainty was found in the patients' anterior-posterior-axis. Conclusions These results allow for informed margin calculation and robust optimization of treatments. Daily IGRT is the superior choice for setup of pediatric patients treated with CSI, although centers that do not have this option could use the results presented here to improve their margins and uncertainty estimates for a more accurate treatment alignment.
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3.
  • Blomstrand, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Estimated clinical benefit of protecting neurogenesis in the developing brain during radiation therapy for pediatric medulloblastoma.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neuro-oncology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1523-5866. ; 14:7, s. 882-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We sought to assess the feasibility and estimate the benefit of sparing the neurogenic niches when irradiating the brain of pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) based on clinical outcome data. Pediatric MB survivors experience a high risk of neurocognitive adverse effects, often attributed to the whole-brain irradiation that is part of standard management. Neurogenesis is very sensitive to radiation, and limiting the radiation dose to the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) may preserve neurocognitive function. Radiotherapy plans were created using 4 techniques: standard opposing fields, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT), and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Mean dose to the hippocampus and SVZ (mean for both sites) could be limited to 88.3% (range, 83.6%-91.0%), 77.1% (range, 71.5%-81.3%), and 42.3% (range, 26.6%-51.2%) with IMAT, IMRT, and IMPT, respectively, while maintaining at least 95% of the prescribed dose in 95% of the whole-brain target volume. Estimated risks for developing memory impairment after a prescribed dose of 23.4 Gy were 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21%-69%), 44% (95% CI, 21%-65%), 41% (95% CI, 22%-60%), and 33% (95% CI, 23%-44%) with opposing fields, IMAT, IMRT, and IMPT, respectively. Neurogenic niche sparing during cranial irradiation of pediatric patients with MB is feasible and is estimated to lower the risks of long-term neurocognitive sequelae. Greatest sparing is achieved with intensity-modulated proton therapy, thus making this an attractive option to be tested in a prospective clinical trial.
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4.
  • Brodin, N Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Hippocampal sparing radiotherapy for pediatric medulloblastoma: impact of treatment margins and treatment technique.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neuro-oncology. - 1523-5866. ; 16:4, s. 594-602
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundWe investigated how varying the treatment margin and applying hippocampal sparing and proton therapy impact the risk of neurocognitive impairment in pediatric medulloblastoma patients compared with current standard 3D conformal radiotherapy.MethodsWe included 17 pediatric medulloblastoma patients to represent the variability in tumor location relative to the hippocampal region. Treatment plans were generated using 3D conformal radiotherapy, hippocampal sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and spot-scanned proton therapy, using 3 different treatment margins for the conformal tumor boost. Neurocognitive impairment risk was estimated based on dose-response models from pediatric CNS malignancy survivors and compared among different margins and treatment techniques.ResultsMean hippocampal dose and corresponding risk of cognitive impairment were decreased with decreasing treatment margins (P < .05). The largest risk reduction, however, was seen when applying hippocampal sparing proton therapy-the estimated risk of impaired task efficiency (95% confidence interval) was 92% (66%-98%), 81% (51%-95%), and 50% (30%-70%) for 3D conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and proton therapy, respectively, for the smallest boost margin and 98% (78%-100%), 90% (60%-98%), and 70% (39%-90%) if boosting the whole posterior fossa. Also, the distance between the closest point of the planning target volume and the center of the hippocampus can be used to predict mean hippocampal dose for a given treatment technique.ConclusionsWe estimate a considerable clinical benefit of hippocampal sparing radiotherapy. In choosing treatment margins, the tradeoff between margin size and risk of neurocognitive impairment quantified here should be considered.
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5.
  • Brodin, N. Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Life years lost-comparing potentially fatal late complications after radiotherapy for pediatric medulloblastoma on a common scale
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1097-0142. ; 118:21, s. 5432-5440
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The authors developed a framework for estimating and comparing the risks of various long-term complications on a common scale and applied it to 3 different techniques for craniospinal irradiation in patients with pediatric medulloblastoma. METHODS: Radiation dose-response parameters related to excess hazard ratios for secondary breast, lung, stomach, and thyroid cancer; heart failure, and myocardial infarction were derived from large published clinical series. Combined with age-specific and sex-specific hazards in the US general population, the dose-response analysis yielded excess hazards of complications for a cancer survivor as a function of attained age. After adjusting for competing risks of death, life years lost (LYL) were estimated based on excess hazard and prognosis of a complication for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). RESULTS: Lung cancer contributed most to the estimated LYL, followed by myocardial infarction, and stomach cancer. The estimates of breast or thyroid cancer incidence were higher than those for lung and stomach cancer incidence, but LYL were lower because of the relatively good prognosis. Estimated LYL ranged between 1.90 years for 3D CRT to 0.28 years for IMPT. In a paired comparison, IMPT was associated with significantly fewer LYL than both photon techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Estimating the risk of late complications is associated with considerable uncertainty, but including prognosis and attained age at an event to obtain the more informative LYL estimate added relatively little to this uncertainty. Cancer 2012. (c) 2012 American Cancer Society.
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6.
  • Brodin, N. Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Modeling Freedom From Progression for Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma: A Mathematical Tumor Control Model With Multiple Modes of Failure
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0360-3016. ; 87:2, s. 422-429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: As pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) is a relatively rare disease, it is important to extract the maximum information from trials and cohort studies. Here, a framework was developed for modeling tumor control with multiple modes of failure and time-to-progression for standard-risk MB, using published pattern of failure data. Methods and Materials: Outcome data for standard-risk MB published after 1990 with pattern of relapse information were used to fit a tumor control dose-response model addressing failures in both the high-dose boost volume and the elective craniospinal volume. Estimates of 5-year event-free survival from 2 large randomized MB trials were used to model the time-to-progression distribution. Uncertainty in freedom from progression (FFP) was estimated by Monte Carlo sampling over the statistical uncertainty in input data. Results: The estimated 5-year FFP (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for craniospinal doses of 15, 18, 24, and 36 Gy while maintaining 54 Gy to the posterior fossa was 77% (95% CI, 70%-81%), 78% (95% CI, 73%-81%), 79% (95% CI, 76%-82%), and 80% (95% CI, 77%-84%) respectively. The uncertainty in FFP was considerably larger for craniospinal doses below 18 Gy, reflecting the lack of data in the lower dose range. Conclusions: Estimates of tumor control and time-to-progression for standard-risk MB provides a data-driven setting for hypothesis generation or power calculations for prospective trials, taking the uncertainties into account. The presented methods can also be applied to incorporate further risk-stratification for example based on molecular biomarkers, when the necessary data become available. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc.
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