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Sökning: WFRF:(Broholm Christa)

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1.
  • Davegårdh, Cajsa, et al. (författare)
  • VPS39-deficiency observed in type 2 diabetes impairs muscle stem cell differentiation via altered autophagy and epigenetics
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Nature. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin resistance and lower muscle quality (strength divided by mass) are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we explore whether alterations in muscle stem cells (myoblasts) from individuals with T2D contribute to these phenotypes. We identify VPS39 as an important regulator of myoblast differentiation and muscle glucose uptake, and VPS39 is downregulated in myoblasts and myotubes from individuals with T2D. We discover a pathway connecting VPS39-deficiency in human myoblasts to impaired autophagy, abnormal epigenetic reprogramming, dysregulation of myogenic regulators, and perturbed differentiation. VPS39 knockdown in human myoblasts has profound effects on autophagic flux, insulin signaling, epigenetic enzymes, DNA methylation and expression of myogenic regulators, and gene sets related to the cell cycle, muscle structure and apoptosis. These data mimic what is observed in myoblasts from individuals with T2D. Furthermore, the muscle of Vps39+/− mice display reduced glucose uptake and altered expression of genes regulating autophagy, epigenetic programming, and myogenesis. Overall, VPS39-deficiency contributes to impaired muscle differentiation and reduced glucose uptake. VPS39 thereby offers a therapeutic target for T2D. 
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2.
  • Väremo, Leif, et al. (författare)
  • Proteome- and Transcriptome-Driven Reconstruction of the Human Myocyte Metabolic Network and Its Use for Identification of Markers for Diabetes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cell reports. - 2211-1247 .- 2211-1247. ; 11:6, s. 921-933
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Skeletal myocytes are metabolically active and susceptible to insulin resistance and are thus implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This complex disease involves systemic metabolic changes, and their elucidation at the systems level requires genome-wide data and biological networks. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) provide a network context for the integration of high-throughput data. We generated myocyte-specific RNA-sequencing data and investigated their correlation with proteome data. These data were then used to reconstruct a comprehensive myocyte GEM. Next, we performed a meta-analysis of six studies comparing muscle transcription in T2D versus healthy subjects. Transcriptional changes were mapped on the myocyte GEM, revealing extensive transcriptional regulation in T2D, particularly around pyruvate oxidation, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and tetrahydrofolate metabolism, connected through the downregulated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Strikingly, the gene signature underlying this metabolic regulation successfully classifies the disease state of individual samples, suggesting that regulation of these pathways is a ubiquitous feature of myocytes in response to T2D.
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3.
  • Wigge, Leif, 1986, et al. (författare)
  • Type 2 diabetes and obesity induce similar transcriptional reprogramming in human myocytes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Genome Medicine. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1756-994X. ; 9:1, s. Article Number: 47-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Skeletal muscle is one of the primary tissues involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The close association between obesity and T2D makes it difficult to isolate specific effects attributed to the disease alone. Therefore, here we set out to identify and characterize intrinsic properties of myocytes, associated independently with T2D or obesity. Methods: We generated and analyzed RNA-seq data from primary differentiated myotubes from 24 human subjects, using a factorial design (healthy/T2D and non-obese/obese), to determine the influence of each specific factor on genome-wide transcription. This setup enabled us to identify intrinsic properties, originating from muscle precursor cells and retained in the corresponding myocytes. Bioinformatic and statistical methods, including differential expression analysis, gene-set analysis, and metabolic network analysis, were used to characterize the different myocytes. Results: We found that the transcriptional program associated with obesity alone was strikingly similar to that induced specifically by T2D. We identified a candidate epigenetic mechanism, H3K27me3 histone methylation, mediating these transcriptional signatures. T2D and obesity were independently associated with dysregulated myogenesis, down-regulated muscle function, and up-regulation of inflammation and extracellular matrix components. Metabolic network analysis identified that in T2D but not obesity a specific metabolite subnetwork involved in sphingolipid metabolism was transcriptionally regulated. Conclusions: Our findings identify inherent characteristics in myocytes, as a memory of the in vivo phenotype, without the influence from a diabetic or obese extracellular environment, highlighting their importance in the development of T2D.
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4.
  • Broholm, Christa, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenetic programming of adipose-derived stem cells in low birthweight individuals
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X. ; 59:12, s. 2664-2673
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Low birthweight (LBW) is associated with dysfunctions of adipose tissue and metabolic disease in adult life. We hypothesised that altered epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) could play a role in programming adipose tissue dysfunction in LBW individuals. Methods: ADSCs were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of 13 normal birthweight (NBW) and 13 LBW adult men. The adipocytes were cultured in vitro, and genome-wide differences in RNA expression and DNA methylation profiles were analysed in ADSCs and differentiated adipocytes. Results: We demonstrated that ADSCs from LBW individuals exhibit multiple expression changes as well as genome-wide alterations in methylation pattern. Reduced expression of the transcription factor cyclin T2 encoded by CCNT2 may play a key role in orchestrating several of the gene expression changes in ADSCs from LBW individuals. Indeed, silencing of CCNT2 in human adipocytes decreased leptin secretion as well as the mRNA expression of several genes involved in adipogenesis, including MGLL, LIPE, PPARG, LEP and ADIPOQ. Only subtle genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation changes were seen in mature cultured adipocytes from LBW individuals. Conclusions/interpretation: Epigenetic and transcriptional changes in LBW individuals are most pronounced in immature ADSCs that in turn may programme physiological characteristics of the mature adipocytes that influence the risk of metabolic diseases. Reduced expression of CCNT2 may play a key role in the developmental programming of adipose tissue.
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5.
  • Broholm, Christa, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenome- and Transcriptome-wide Changes in Muscle Stem Cells from Low Birth Weight Men
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Endocrine Research. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0743-5800. ; 45:1, s. 58-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Being born with low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), which may be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms programmed by the intrauterine environment. Epigenetic mechanisms exert their prime effects in developing cells. We hypothesized that muscle insulin resistance in LBW subjects may be due to early differential epigenomic and transcriptomic alterations in their immature muscle progenitor cells. Results: Muscle progenitor cells were obtained from 23 healthy young adult men born at term with LBW, and 15 BMI-matched normal birth weight (NBW) controls. The cells were subsequently cultured and differentiated into myotubes. DNA and RNA were harvested before and after differentiation for genome-wide DNA methylation and RNA expression measurements. After correcting for multiple comparisons (q ≤ 0.05), 56 CpG sites were found to be significantly, differentially methylated in myoblasts from LBW compared with NBW men, of which the top five gene-annotated CpG sites (SKI, ARMCX3, NR5A2, NEUROG, ESRRG) previously have been associated to regulation of cholesterol, fatty acid and glucose metabolism and muscle development or hypertrophy. LBW men displayed markedly decreased myotube gene expression levels of the AMPK-repressing tyrosine kinase gene FYN and the histone deacetylase gene HDAC7. Silencing of FYN and HDAC7 was associated with impaired myotube formation, which for HDAC7 reduced muscle glucose uptake. Conclusions: The data provides evidence of impaired muscle development predisposing LBW individuals to T2D is linked to and potentially caused by distinct DNA methylation and transcriptional changes including down regulation of HDAC7 and FYN in their immature myoblast stem cells.
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6.
  • Broholm, Christa, et al. (författare)
  • Human adipogenesis is associated with genome-wide DNA methylation and gene-expression changes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Epigenomics. - : Future Medicine Ltd.. - 1750-1911. ; 8:12, s. 1601-1617
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To define the genomic distribution and function of DNA methylation changes during human adipogenesis. Methods: We isolated adipocyte-derived stem cells from 13 individuals and analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in cultured adipocyte-derived stem cells and mature adipocytes. Results: We observed altered DNA methylation of 11,947 CpG sites and altered expression of 11,830 transcripts after differentiation. De novo methylation was observed across all genomic elements. Co-existence of genes with both altered expression and DNA methylation was found in genes important for cell cycle and adipokine signaling. Conclusion: Human adipogenesis is associated with significant DNA methylation changes across the entire genome and may impact regulation of cell cycle and adipokine signaling.
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7.
  • Davegårdh, Cajsa, et al. (författare)
  • Abnormal epigenetic changes during differentiation of human skeletal muscle stem cells from obese subjects
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1741-7015. ; 15:1, s. 1-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. Methods: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals. Functional follow-up experiments were performed using siRNA mediated gene silencing in primary human myoblasts and a transgenic mouse model. Results: We observed genome-wide changes in DNA methylation and expression patterns during differentiation of primary human muscle stem cells (myoblasts). We identified epigenetic and transcriptional changes of myogenic transcription factors (MYOD1, MYOG, MYF5, MYF6, PAX7, MEF2A, MEF2C, and MEF2D), cell cycle regulators, metabolic enzymes and genes previously not linked to myogenesis, including IL32, metallothioneins, and pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoproteins. Functional studies demonstrated IL-32 as a novel target that regulates human myogenesis, insulin sensitivity and ATP levels in muscle cells. Furthermore, IL32 transgenic mice had reduced insulin response and muscle weight. Remarkably, approximately 3.7 times more methylation changes (147,161 versus 39,572) were observed during differentiation of myoblasts from obese versus non-obese subjects. In accordance, DNMT1 expression increased during myogenesis only in obese subjects. Interestingly, numerous genes implicated in metabolic diseases and epigenetic regulation showed differential methylation and expression during differentiation only in obese subjects. Conclusions: Our study identifies IL-32 as a novel myogenic regulator, provides a comprehensive map of the dynamic epigenome during differentiation of human muscle stem cells and reveals abnormal epigenetic changes in obesity.
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8.
  • Davegårdh, Cajsa, et al. (författare)
  • Sex influences DNA methylation and gene expression in human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Stem Cell Research and Therapy. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1757-6512. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Sex differences are known to impact muscle phenotypes, metabolism, and disease risk. Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) are important for muscle repair and to maintain functional skeletal muscle. Here we studied, for the first time, effects of sex on DNA methylation and gene expression in primary human myoblasts (activated satellite cells) before and after differentiation into myotubes. Method: We used an array-based approach to analyse genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in myoblasts and myotubes from 13 women and 13 men. The results were followed up with a reporter gene assay. Results: Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression differences between the sexes were detected in both myoblasts and myotubes, on the autosomes as well as the X-chromosome, despite lack of exposure to sex hormones and other factors that differ between sexes. Pathway analysis revealed higher expression of oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic pathways in myoblasts from women compared to men. Oxidative phosphorylation was also enriched among genes with higher expression in myotubes from women. Forty genes in myoblasts and 9 in myotubes had differences in both DNA methylation and gene expression between the sexes, including LAMP2 and SIRT1 in myoblasts and KDM6A in myotubes. Furthermore, increased DNA methylation of LAMP2 promoter had negative effects on reporter gene expression. Five genes (CREB5, RPS4X, SYAP1, XIST, and ZRSR2) showed differential DNA methylation and gene expression between the sexes in both myoblasts and myotubes. Interestingly, differences in DNA methylation and expression between women and men were also found during differentiation (myoblasts versus myotubes), e.g., in genes involved in energy metabolism. Interestingly, more DNA methylation changes occur in women compared to men on autosomes. Conclusion: All together, we show that epigenetic and transcriptional differences exist in human myoblasts and myotubes as well as during differentiation between women and men. We believe that these intrinsic differences might contribute to sex dependent differences in muscular phenotypes.
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9.
  • Hansen, Ninna Schiøler, et al. (författare)
  • Fetal hyperglycemia changes human preadipocyte function in adult life
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X. ; 102:4, s. 1141-1150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Offspring of women with gestational diabetes (O-GDM) or type 1 diabetes mellitus (O-T1DM) have been exposed to hyperglycemia in utero and have an increased risk of developing metabolic disease in adulthood. Design: In total, we recruited 206 adult offspring comprising the two fetal hyperglycemic groups, O-GDM and O-T1DM, and, as a control group, offspring from the background population (O-BP). Subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained and preadipocyte cell cultures were established from adult male O-GDM (n = 18, age 30.1 ± 2.5 years), O-T1DM (n = 18, age 31.6 ± 2.2 years), and O-BP (n = 16; age, 31.5 ± 2.7 years) and cultured in vitro. Main Outcome Measures: First, we studied in vivo adipocyte histology. Second, we studied in vitro preadipocyte leptin secretion, gene expression, and LEP DNA methylation. This was studied in combination with in vitro preadipocyte lipogenesis, lipolysis, and mitochondrial respiration. Results: We show that subcutaneous adipocytes from O-GDM are enlarged compared with O-BP adipocytes. Preadipocytes isolated from male O-GDM and O-T1DM and cultured in vitro displayed decreased LEP promoter methylation, increased leptin gene expression, and elevated leptin secretion throughout differentiation, compared with adipocytes established from male O-BP. In addition, the preadipocytes demonstrated functional defects including decreased maximal mitochondrial capacity with increased lipolysis and decreased ability to store fatty acids when challenged with 3 days of extra fatty acid supply. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings show that intrinsic epigenetic and functional changes exist in preadipocyte cultures from individuals exposed to fetal hyperglycemia who are at increased risk of developing metabolic disease.
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10.
  • Vaag, Allan, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic, non-genetic and epigenetic risk determinants in developmental programming of type 2 diabetes.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-0412. ; 93:11, s. 1099-1108
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low birthweight (LBW) individuals and offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated cardiometabolic traits in adulthood, which for both groups may be mediated by adverse events and developmental changes in fetal life. T2D is a multifactorial disease occurring as a result of complicated interplay between genetic and both pre- as well as postnatal non-genetic factors, and it remains unknown to which extent the increased risk of T2D associated with LBW or GDM in the mother may be due to, or confounded by, genetic factors. Indeed, it has been shown that genetic changes influencing risk of diabetes may also be associated with reduced fetal growth as a result of reduced insulin secretion and/or action. Similarly, increased risk of T2D among offspring could be explained by T2D susceptibility genes shared between the mother and her offspring. Epigenetic mechanisms may explain the link between factors operating in fetal life and later risk of developing T2D, but so far convincing evidence is lacking for epigenetic changes as a prime and direct cause of T2D. This review addresses recent literature on the early origins of adult disease hypothesis, with a special emphasis on the role of genetic compared to non-genetic and epigenetic risk determinants and disease mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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