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Sökning: WFRF:(Brookes Anthony J.)

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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  • Lahermo, P, et al. (författare)
  • A quality assessment survey of SNP genotyping laboratories
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 27:7, s. 711-714
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • To survey the quality of SNP genotyping, a joint Nordic quality assessment (QA) round was organized between 11 laboratories in the Nordic and Baltic countries. The QA round involved blinded genotyping of 47 DNA samples for 18 or six randomly selected SNPs. The methods used by the participating laboratories included all major platforms for small- to medium-size SNP genotyping. The laboratories used their standard procedures for SNP assay design, genotyping, and quality control. Based on the joint results from all laboratories, a consensus genotype for each DNA sample and SNP was determined by the coordinator of the survey, and the results from each laboratory were compared to this genotype. The overall genotyping accuracy achieved in the survey was excellent. Six laboratories delivered genotype data that were in full agreement with the consensus genotype. The average accuracy per SNP varied from 99.1 to 100% between the laboratories, and it was frequently 100% for the majority of the assays for which SNP genotypes were reported. Lessons from the survey are that special attention should be given to the quality of the DNA samples prior to genotyping, and that a conservative approach for calling the genotypes should be used to achieve a high accuracy.
  • McGinn, Steven, et al. (författare)
  • New technologies for DNA analysis - a review of the READNA Project
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: New Biotechnology. - : Elsevier. - 1871-6784 .- 1876-4347. ; 33:3, s. 311-330
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The REvolutionary Approaches and Devices for Nucleic Acid analysis (READNA) project received funding from the European Commission for 4 1/2 years. The objectives of the project revolved around technological developments in nucleic acid analysis. The project partners have discovered, created and developed a huge body of insights into nucleic acid analysis, ranging from improvements and implementation of current technologies to the most promising sequencing technologies that constitute a 3rd and 4th generation of sequencing methods with nanopores and in situ sequencing, respectively.
  • Lindstrom, S, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive genetic evaluation of common E-cadherin sequence variants and prostate cancer risk : strong confirmation of functional promoter SNP
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Genom & Bioinformat, Stockholm, Sweden. Univ Leicester, Dept Genet, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England. Wake Forest Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Human Genom, Winston Salem, NC USA. Johns Hopkins Med Inst, Dept Urol, Baltimore, MD USA. CLINTECH, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden. : SPRINGER. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 118:3-4, s. 339-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) has been proposed as a prostate cancer (PC) susceptibility gene in several studies. Aberrant protein expression has been related to prognosis and progression in PC. In addition, a functional promoter SNP (rsl6260) has been found to associate with PC risk. We performed a comprehensive genetic analysis of CDH1 by using the method of haplotype tagged SNPs in a large Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 801 controls and 1,636 cases. In addition, Swedish PC families comprising a total of 157 cases sampled for DNA were analyzed for selected SNPs. Seven SNPs, including the promoter SNP rsl6260, that captured over 96% of CDH1 haplotype variation were selected as haplotype tagging SNPs and analyzed for associated PC risk. We observed significant confirmation of rsl6260 (P=0.003) for cases with a positive family history of PC (FH+) both in an independent case-control population and in PC families. In addition, a common haplotype (HapB, 25%) including the variant allele of rsl6260 was associated (P=0.004) with PC risk among FH+ cases. The promoter SNP rsl6260 as well as HapB were significantly transmitted to affected offspring in PC families. We report strong confirmation of the association between PC risk in FH+ cases and a functional CDH1 promoter SNP in an independent population. In conjunction with the biological importance of CDH1 our findings encourage further evaluation of genetic variation in CDH1 in relation to PC etiology. Due to the difficulties in replication of genetic association studies. this finding is unusual and novel.
  • Lindstrom, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Systematic replication study of reported genetic associations in prostate cancer : Strong support for genetic variation in the androgen pathway
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci Oncol, Umea, Sweden. Wake Forest Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Human Genome, Winston Salem, NC USA. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Genome & Bioinformat, Stockholm, Sweden. Univ Leicester, Dept Genet, Leicester, Leics, England. Johns Hopkins Med Inst, Dept Urol, Baltimore, MD USA. Karolinska Inst, CLINTEC, Ctr Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden. : WILEY-LISS. - 0270-4137 .- 1097-0045. ; 66:16, s. 1729-1743
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND. Association studies have become a common and popular method to identify genetic variants predisposing to complex diseases. Despite considerable efforts and initial promising findings, the field of prostate cancer genetics is characterized by inconclusive reports and no prostate cancer gene has yet been established. METHODS. We performed a literature review and identified 79 different polymorphisms reported to influence prostate cancer risk. Of these, 46 were selected and tested for association in a large Swedish population-based case-control prostate cancer population. RESULTS. We observed significant (P < 0.05) confirmation for six polymorphisms located in five different genes. Three of them coded for key enzymes in the androgen biosynthesis and response pathway; the CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene (P = 0.03), one SNP in the CYP17 gene (P = 0.04), two SNPs in the SRD5A2 gene (P = 0.02 and 0.02, respectively), a deletion of the GSTT1. gene (P = 0.006), and one SNP in the MSR1 gene, IVS5-59C > A, (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS. Notwithstanding the difficulties to replicate findings in genetic association studies, our results strongly support the importance of androgen pathway genes in prostate cancer etiology.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 48
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Brookes, Anthony J. (48)
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