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Sökning: WFRF:(Burke Terry)

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1.
  • Teplitsky, Celine, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing Multivariate Constraints to Evolution across Ten Long-Term Avian Studies.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 9:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a rapidly changing world, it is of fundamental importance to understand processes constraining or facilitating adaptation through microevolution. As different traits of an organism covary, genetic correlations are expected to affect evolutionary trajectories. However, only limited empirical data are available. We investigate the extent to which multivariate constraints affect the rate of adaptation, focusing on four morphological traits often shown to harbour large amounts of genetic variance and considered to be subject to limited evolutionary constraints. Our data set includes unique long-term data for seven bird species and a total of 10 populations. We estimate population-specific matrices of genetic correlations and multivariate selection coefficients to predict evolutionary responses to selection. Using Bayesian methods that facilitate the propagation of errors in estimates, we compare (1) the rate of adaptation based on predicted response to selection when including genetic correlations with predictions from models where these genetic correlations were set to zero and (2) the multivariate evolvability in the direction of current selection to the average evolvability in random directions of the phenotypic space. We show that genetic correlations on average decrease the predicted rate of adaptation by 28%. Multivariate evolvability in the direction of current selection was systematically lower than average evolvability in random directions of space. These significant reductions in the rate of adaptation and reduced evolvability were due to a general nonalignment of selection and genetic variance, notably orthogonality of directional selection with the size axis along which most (60%) of the genetic variance is found. These results suggest that genetic correlations can impose significant constraints on the evolution of avian morphology in wild populations. This could have important impacts on evolutionary dynamics and hence population persistence in the face of rapid environmental change.
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2.
  • Hudson, Thomas J., et al. (författare)
  • International network of cancer genome projects
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7291, s. 993-998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.
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3.
  • Sodergren, Erica, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Science. - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 314:5801, s. 941-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with high heterozygosity of the genome. The genome encodes about 23,300 genes, including many previously thought to be vertebrate innovations or known only outside the deuterostomes. This echinoderm genome provides an evolutionary outgroup for the chordates and yields insights into the evolution of deuterostomes.
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5.
  • Dawson, Deborah A., et al. (författare)
  • Gene order and recombination rate in homologous chromosome regions of the chicken and a passerine bird
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - : Oxford University Press. - 0737-4038. ; 24:7, s. 1537-1552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome structure has been found to be highly conserved between distantly related birds and recent data for a limited part of the genome suggest that this is true also for the gene order (synteny) within chromosomes. Here, we confirm that synteny is maintained for large chromosomal regions in chicken and a passerine bird, the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, with few rearrangements, but in contrast show that the recombination-based linkage map distances differ substantially between these species. We assigned a chromosomal location based on sequence similarity to the chicken genome sequence to a set of inicrosatellite loci mapped in a pedigree of great reed warblers. We detected homologous loci on 14 different chromosomes corresponding to chicken chromosomes Gga1-5, 7-9, 13, 19, 20, 24, 25, and Z. It is known that 2 passerine macrochromosomes correspond to the chicken chromosome Gga1. Homology of 2 different great reed warbler linkage groups (LG13 and LG5) to Gga1 allowed us to locate the split to a position between 20.8 and 84.8 Mb on Gga1. Data from the 5 chromosomal regions (on Gga1, 2, 3, 5, and Z) with 3 or more homologous loci showed that synteny was conserved with the exception of 2 large previously unreported inversions on Gga1/LG5 and Gga2/LG3, respectively. Recombination data from the 9 chromosomal regions in which we identified 2 or more homologous loci (accounting for the inversions) showed that the linkage map distances in great reed warblers were only 6.3% and 13.3% of those in chickens for males and females, respectively. This is likely to reflect the true interspecific difference in recombination rate because our markers were not located in potentially low-recombining regions: several linkage groups covered a substantial part of their corresponding chicken chromosomes and were not restricted to centromeres. We conclude that recombination rates may differ strongly between bird species with highly conserved genome structure and synteny and that the chicken linkage map may not be suitable, in terms of genetic distances, as a model for all bird species.
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6.
  • Dawson, Deborah A., et al. (författare)
  • New methods to identify conserved microsatellite loci and develop primer sets of high cross-species utility - as demonstrated for birds
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology Resources. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1755-098X. ; 10:3, s. 475-494
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have developed a new approach to create microsatellite primer sets that have high utility across a wide range of species. The success of this method was demonstrated using birds. We selected 35 avian EST microsatellite loci that had a high degree of sequence homology between the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata and the chicken Gallus gallus and designed primer sets in which the primer bind sites were identical in both species. For 33 conserved primer sets, on average, 100% of loci amplified in each of 17 passerine species and 99% of loci in five non-passerine species. The genotyping of four individuals per species revealed that 24-76% (mean 48%) of loci were polymorphic in the passerines and 18-26% (mean 21%) in the non-passerines. When at least 17 individuals were genotyped per species for four Fringillidae finch species, 71-85% of loci were polymorphic, observed heterozygosity was above 0.50 for most loci and no locus deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg proportions. This new set of microsatellite markers is of higher cross-species utility than any set previously designed. The loci described are suitable for a range of applications that require polymorphic avian markers, including paternity and population studies. They will facilitate comparisons of bird genome organization, including genome mapping and studies of recombination, and allow comparisons of genetic variability between species whilst avoiding ascertainment bias. The costs and time to develop new loci can now be avoided for many applications in numerous species. Furthermore, our method can be readily used to develop microsatellite markers of high utility across other taxa.
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7.
  • Dawson, Deborah, et al. (författare)
  • High-utility conserved avian microsatellite markers enable parentage and population studies across a wide range of species
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 14:1, s. 176-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Microsatellites are widely used for many genetic studies. In contrast to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and genotyping-by-sequencing methods, they are readily typed in samples of low DNA quality/concentration (e.g. museum/non-invasive samples), and enable the quick, cheap identification of species, hybrids, clones and ploidy. Microsatellites also have the highest cross-species utility of all types of markers used for genotyping, but, despite this, when isolated from a single species, only a relatively small proportion will be of utility. Marker development of any type requires skill and time. The availability of sufficient "off-the-shelf" markers that are suitable for genotypinga wide range of species would not only save resources but also uniquely enablenew comparisons of diversity among taxa at the same set of loci. No other marker types are capable of enabling this. We therefore developed a set of avianmicrosatellite markers with enhanced cross-species utility. Results: We selected highly-conserved sequences with a high number of repeat units in both of two genetically distant species. Twenty-four primer sets were designed from homologous sequences that possessed at least eight repeat units in both the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and chicken (Gallus gallus). Each primer sequence was a complete match to zebra finch and, after accounting for degenerate bases, at least 86% similar to chicken. We assessed primer-set utilityby genotyping individuals belonging to eight passerine and four non-passerinespecies. The majority of the new Conserved Avian Microsatellite (CAM) markersamplified in all 12 species tested (on average, 94% in passerines and 95% in non-passerines). This new marker set is of especially high utility in passerines, with amean 68% of loci polymorphic per species, compared with 42% in non-passerinespecies. Conclusions: When combined with previously described conserved loci, this new set of conserved markers will not only reduce the necessity and expense ofmicrosatellite isolation for a wide range of genetic studies, including avianparentage and population analyses, but will also now enable comparisons ofgenetic diversity among different species (and populations) at the same set of loci, with no or reduced bias. Finally, the approach used here can be applied to other taxa in which appropriate genome sequences are available.
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8.
  • Deans, Andrew R, et al. (författare)
  • Finding Our Way through Phenotypes.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Biology. - : Public Library of Science. - 1545-7885. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite a large and multifaceted effort to understand the vast landscape of phenotypic data, their current form inhibits productive data analysis. The lack of a community-wide, consensus-based, human- and machine-interpretable language for describing phenotypes and their genomic and environmental contexts is perhaps the most pressing scientific bottleneck to integration across many key fields in biology, including genomics, systems biology, development, medicine, evolution, ecology, and systematics. Here we survey the current phenomics landscape, including data resources and handling, and the progress that has been made to accurately capture relevant data descriptions for phenotypes. We present an example of the kind of integration across domains that computable phenotypes would enable, and we call upon the broader biology community, publishers, and relevant funding agencies to support efforts to surmount today's data barriers and facilitate analytical reproducibility.
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9.
  • Ekblom, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) transcriptome : a resource for molecular ecology and immunogenetics
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology Resources. - 1755-098X .- 1755-0998. ; 14:3, s. 636-646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is an important model species in ecology and evolution. However, until recently, genomic resources for molecular ecological projects have been lacking in this species. Here, we present transcriptome sequencing data (RNA-Seq) from three different house sparrow tissues (spleen, blood and bursa). These tissues were specifically chosen to obtain a diverse representation of expressed genes and to maximize the yield of immune-related gene functions. After de novo assembly, 15250 contigs were identified, representing sequence data from a total of 8756 known avian genes (as inferred from the closely related zebra finch). The transcriptome assembly contain sequence data from nine manually annotated MHC genes, including an almost complete MHC class I coding sequence. There were 407, 303 and 68 genes overexpressed in spleen, blood and bursa, respectively. Gene ontology terms related to ribosomal function were associated with overexpression in spleen and oxygen transport functions with overexpression in blood. In addition to the transcript sequences, we provide 327 gene-linked microsatellites (SSRs) with sufficient flanking sequences for primer design, and 3177 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes, that can be used in follow-up molecular ecology studies of this ecological well-studied species.
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10.
  • Ekblom, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison between Normalised and Unnormalised 454-Sequencing Libraries for Small-Scale RNA-Seq Studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Comparative and functional genomics. - 1531-6912 .- 1532-6268. ; 2012, s. 281693-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Next-generation sequencing of transcriptomes (RNA-Seq) is being used increasingly in studies of nonmodel organisms. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of normalising cDNA libraries prior to sequencing in a small-scale study of the zebra finch. We find that assemblies produced from normalised libraries had a larger number of contigs but used fewer reads compared to unnormalised libraries. Considerably more genes were also detected using the contigs produced from normalised cDNA, and microsatellite discovery was up to 73% more efficient in these. There was a positive correlation between the detected expression level of genes in normalised and unnormalised cDNA, and there was no difference in the number of genes identified as being differentially expressed between blood and spleen for the normalised and unnormalised libraries. We conclude that normalised cDNA libraries are preferable for many applications of RNA-Seq and that these can also be used in quantitative gene expression studies.
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