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1.
  • Griffin, M. J., et al. (författare)
  • The Herschel-SPIRE instrument and its in-flight performance
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518, s. L3-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE), is the Herschel Space Observatory`s submillimetre camera and spectrometer. It contains a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 mu m, and an imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) which covers simultaneously its whole operating range of 194-671 mu m (447-1550 GHz). The SPIRE detectors are arrays of feedhorn-coupled bolometers cooled to 0.3 K. The photometer has a field of view of 4' x 8', observed simultaneously in the three spectral bands. Its main operating mode is scan-mapping, whereby the field of view is scanned across the sky to achieve full spatial sampling and to cover large areas if desired. The spectrometer has an approximately circular field of view with a diameter of 2.6'. The spectral resolution can be adjusted between 1.2 and 25 GHz by changing the stroke length of the FTS scan mirror. Its main operating mode involves a fixed telescope pointing with multiple scans of the FTS mirror to acquire spectral data. For extended source measurements, multiple position offsets are implemented by means of an internal beam steering mirror to achieve the desired spatial sampling and by rastering of the telescope pointing to map areas larger than the field of view. The SPIRE instrument consists of a cold focal plane unit located inside the Herschel cryostat and warm electronics units, located on the spacecraft Service Module, for instrument control and data handling. Science data are transmitted to Earth with no on-board data compression, and processed by automatic pipelines to produce calibrated science products. The in-flight performance of the instrument matches or exceeds predictions based on pre-launch testing and modelling: the photometer sensitivity is comparable to or slightly better than estimated pre-launch, and the spectrometer sensitivity is also better by a factor of 1.5-2.
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2.
  • Marconi, A., et al. (författare)
  • EELT-HIRES the high-resolution spectrograph for the E-ELT
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: GROUND-BASED AND AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION FOR ASTRONOMY VI. - 9781510601963
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first generation of E-ELT instruments will include an optical infrared High Resolution Spectrograph, conventionally indicated as EELT-HIRES, which will be capable of providing unique breakthroughs in the fields of exoplanets, star and planet formation, physics and evolution of stars and galaxies, cosmology and fundamental physics. A 2-year long phase A study for EELT-HIRES has just started and will be performed by a consortium composed of institutes and organisations from Brazil, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. In this paper we describe the science goals and the preliminary technical concept for EELT-HIRES which will be developed during the phase A, as well as its planned development and consortium organisation during the study.
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3.
  • Marconi, A., et al. (författare)
  • ELT-HIRES, the high resolution spectrograph for the ELT : results from the Phase A study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: GROUND-BASED AND AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION FOR ASTRONOMY VII. - : SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. - 9781510619586
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results from the phase A study of ELT-HIRES, an optical-infrared High Resolution Spectrograph for ELT, which has just been completed by a consortium of 30 institutes from 12 countries forming a team of about 200 scientists and engineers. The top science cases of ELT-HIRES will be the detection of life signatures from exoplanet atmospheres, tests on the stability of Nature's fundamental couplings, the direct detection of the cosmic acceleration. However, the science requirements of these science cases enable many other groundbreaking science cases. The baseline design, which allows to fulfil the top science cases, consists in a modular fiber fed cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph with two ultra-stable spectral arms providing a simultaneous spectral range of 0.4-1.8 pm at a spectral resolution of 100, 000. The fiber-feeding allows ELT-HIRES to have several, interchangeable observing modes including a SCAO module and a small diffraction-limited IFU.
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4.
  • Allen, D. B., et al. (författare)
  • GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643. ; 174:2, s. P1-P9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement.
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6.
  • Johansson, G., et al. (författare)
  • Improved cortisol exposure-time profile and outcome in patients with adrenal insufficiency : a prospective randomised trial of a novel hydrocortisone dual-release formulation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : The Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 97:2, s. 473-481
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Patients with treated adrenal insufficiency (AI) have increased morbidity and mortality rate. Our goal was to improve outcome by developing a once-daily (OD) oral hydrocortisone dual-release tablet with a more physiological exposure-time cortisol profile.Objective: The aim was to compare pharmacokinetics and metabolic outcome between OD and the same daily dose of thrice-daily (TID) dose of conventional hydrocortisone tablets.Design and Setting: We conducted an open, randomized, two-period, 12-wk crossover multicenter trial with a 24-wk extension at five university hospital centers.Patients: The trial enrolled 64 adults with primary AI; 11 had concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM).Intervention: The same daily dose of hydrocortisone was administered as OD dual-release or TID.Main Outcome Measure: We evaluated cortisol pharmacokinetics.Results: Compared with conventional TID, OD provided a sustained serum cortisol profile 0-4 h after the morning intake and reduced the late afternoon and the 24-h cortisol exposure. The mean weight (difference = -0.7 kg, P = 0.005), systolic blood pressure (difference = -5.5 mm Hg, P = 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (difference: -2.3 mm Hg; P = 0.03), and glycated hemoglobin (absolute difference = -0.1%, P = 0.0006) were all reduced after OD compared with TID at 12 wk. Compared with TID, a reduction in glycated hemoglobin by 0.6% was observed in patients with concomitant DM during OD (P = 0.004).Conclusion: The OD dual-release tablet provided a more circadian-based serum cortisol profile. Reduced body weight, reduced blood pressure, and improved glucose metabolism were observed during OD treatment. In particular, glucose metabolism improved in patients with concomitant DM.
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7.
  • Petersson, M., et al. (författare)
  • Natural history and surgical outcome of Rathke's cleft cysts-A study from the Swedish Pituitary Registry
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Endocrinology. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0300-0664 .- 1365-2265. ; 96:1, s. 54-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Rathke's cleft cysts are benign, embryological remnants in the pituitary gland. The majority of them are small and asymptomatic but a few may become large, and cause mass effects, pituitary hormone deficiencies and visual impairment. Recommendations for the follow-up of Rathke's cleft cysts vary since data on the natural history are sparse. Patients and Design Data at diagnosis and at 1, 5 and 10 years for patients with a Rathke's cleft cyst (434 at diagnosis, 317 females) were retrieved from the Swedish Pituitary Registry. Cysts <= 3 mm in diameter were excluded from the study. Measurements Data included demographics, cyst size, pituitary function, visual defects and surgery. Results The mean age at diagnosis was 45 years. In patients with cysts <10 mm in diameter (n = 204) 2.9% had pituitary hormone deficiencies and 2% had visual field impairments. Cyst size did not progress during the 5 years. Cysts with a diameter of >= 10 mm that were not operated (n = 174) decreased in size over the years (p < .01). Pituitary hormone deficiencies and visual impairments were more frequent (18% and 5.7%, respectively) but were stable over time. Transphenoidal surgery was performed in 56 patients of whom 51 underwent surgery before the 1-year follow-up. The mean cyst diameter at diagnosis was 18 mm (range: 930 mm), 36% had pituitary hormone deficiency, 45% had visual field defects and 20% had impaired visual acuity. One year after surgery 60% had no cyst remnants, 50% had a pituitary deficiency, 26% had visual field defects and 12% had impaired visual acuity. No major changes were observed after 5 years. Twelve of the operated patients had a follow-up at 10 years, in eight the cyst remnants or recurrences increased in size over time (p < .05). Conclusions Rathke's cleft cysts with a size less than 10 mm rarely grow and our results indicate that radiological follow-up can be restricted to 5 years. In contrast, progression of postoperative remnants or recurrent cysts is more likely and require long-term follow-up.
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8.
  • Casar-Borota, O., et al. (författare)
  • Corticotroph Aggressive Pituitary Tumors and Carcinomas Frequently Harbor ATRX Mutations
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 106:4, s. 1183-1194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Aggressive pituitary tumors (APTs) are characterized by unusually rapid growth and lack of response to standard treatment. About 1% to 2% develop metastases being classified as pituitary carcinomas (PCs). For unknown reasons, the corticotroph tumors are overrepresented among APTs and PCs. Mutations in the alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene, regulating chromatin remodeling and telomere maintenance, have been implicated in the development of several cancer types, including neuroendocrine tumors. Objective: To study ATRX protein expression and mutational status of the ATRX gene in APTs and PCs. Design: We investigated ATRX protein expression by using immunohistochemistry in 30 APTs and 18 PCs, mostly of Pit-1 and T-Pit cell lineage. In tumors lacking ATRX immunolabeling, mutational status of the ATRX gene was explored. Results: Nine of the 48 tumors (19%) demonstrated lack of ATRX immunolabelling with a higher proportion in patients with PCs (5/18; 28%) than in those with APTs (4/30;13%). Lack of ATRX was most common in the corticotroph tumors, 7/22 (32%), versus tumors of the Pit-1 lineage, 2/24 (8%). Loss-of-function ATRX mutations were found in all 9 ATRX immunonegative cases: nonsense mutations (n = 4), frameshift deletions (n = 4), and large deletions affecting 22-28 of the 36 exons (n = 3). More than 1 ATRX gene defect was identified in 2 PCs. Conclusion: ATRX mutations occur in a subset of APTs and are more common in corticotroph tumors. The findings provide a rationale for performing ATRX immunohistochemistry to identify patients at risk of developing aggressive and potentially metastatic pituitary tumors.
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9.
  • Wells, M., et al. (författare)
  • The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, VI: The Medium Resolution Spectrometer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. - 0004-6280 .- 1538-3873. ; 127:953, s. 646-664
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe the design and performance of the Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) for the JWST-MIRI instrument. The MRS incorporates four coaxial spectral channels in a compact opto-mechanical layout that generates spectral images over fields of view up to 7.7 x 7.7 '' in extent and at spectral resolving powers ranging from 1300 to 3700. Each channel includes an all-reflective integral field unit (IFU): an "image slicer" that reformats the input field for presentation to a grating spectrometer. Two 1024 x 1024 focal plane detector arrays record the output spectral images with an instantaneous spectral coverage of approximately one third of the full wavelength range of each channel. The full 5-28.5 mu m spectrum is then obtained by making three exposures using gratings and pass-band-determining filters that are selected using just two three-position mechanisms. The expected on-orbit optical performance is presented, based on testing of the MIRI Flight Model and including spectral and spatial coverage and resolution. The point spread function of the reconstructed images is shown to be diffraction limited and the optical transmission is shown to be consistent with the design expectations.
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