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1.
  • Forouzanfar, Mohammad H, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 386:10010, s. 2287-2323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.METHODS: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol.FINDINGS: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa.INTERPRETATION: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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2.
  • Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G, et al. (författare)
  • Research needs in allergy: an EAACI position paper, in collaboration with EFA.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical and translational allergy. - 2045-7022. ; 2:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health systems. More disturbingly, its prevalence and impact are on the rise, a development that has been associated with environmental and lifestyle changes accompanying the continuous process of urbanization and globalization. Therefore, there is an urgent need to prioritize and concert research efforts in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century.The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) patients' organizations. In support of their missions, the present EAACI Position Paper, in collaboration with EFA, highlights the most important research needs in the field of allergy to serve as key recommendations for future research funding at the national and European levels.Although allergies may involve almost every organ of the body and an array of diverse external factors act as triggers, there are several common themes that need to be prioritized in research efforts. As in many other chronic diseases, effective prevention, curative treatment and accurate, rapid diagnosis represent major unmet needs. Detailed phenotyping/endotyping stands out as widely required in order to arrange or re-categorize clinical syndromes into more coherent, uniform and treatment-responsive groups. Research efforts to unveil the basic pathophysiologic pathways and mechanisms, thus leading to the comprehension and resolution of the pathophysiologic complexity of allergies will allow for the design of novel patient-oriented diagnostic and treatment protocols. Several allergic diseases require well-controlled epidemiological description and surveillance, using disease registries, pharmacoeconomic evaluation, as well as large biobanks. Additionally, there is a need for extensive studies to bring promising new biotechnological innovations, such as biological agents, vaccines of modified allergen molecules and engineered components for allergy diagnosis, closer to clinical practice. Finally, particular attention should be paid to the difficult-to-manage, precarious and costly severe disease forms and/or exacerbations. Nonetheless, currently arising treatments, mainly in the fields of immunotherapy and biologicals, hold great promise for targeted and causal management of allergic conditions. Active involvement of all stakeholders, including Patient Organizations and policy makers are necessary to achieve the aims emphasized herein.
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3.
  • Sator, Lea, et al. (författare)
  • Overdiagnosis of COPD in Subjects With Unobstructed Spirometry A BOLD Analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Chest. - 0012-3692 .- 1931-3543. ; 156:2, s. 277-288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There are several reports on underdiagnosis of COPD, while little is known about COPD overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We describe the overdiagnosis and the prevalence of spirometrically defined false positive COPD, as well as their relationship with overtreatment across 23 population samples in 20 countries participating in the BOLD Study between 2003 and 2012.METHODS: A false positive diagnosis of COPD was considered when participants reported a doctor's diagnosis of COPD, but postbronchodilator spirometry was unobstructed (FEV1/FVC > LLN). Additional analyses were performed using the fixed ratio criterion (FEV1/FVC < 0.7).RESULTS: Among 16,177 participants, 919 (5.7%) reported a previous medical diagnosis of COPD. Postbronchodilator spirometry was unobstructed in 569 subjects (61.9%): false positive COPD. A similar rate of overdiagnosis was seen when using the fixed ratio criterion (55.3%). In a subgroup analysis excluding participants who reported a diagnosis of "chronic bronchitis" or "emphysema" (n = 220), 37.7% had no airflow limitation. The site-specific prevalence of false positive COPD varied greatly, from 1.9% in low- to middle-income countries to 4.9% in high-income countries. In multivariate analysis, overdiagnosis was more common among women, and was associated with higher education; former and current smoking; the presence of wheeze, cough, and phlegm; and concomitant medical diagnosis of asthma or heart disease. Among the subjects with false positive COPD, 45.7% reported current use of respiratory medication. Excluding patients with reported asthma, 34.4% of those with normal spirometry still used a respiratory medication.CONCLUSIONS: False positive COPD is frequent. This might expose nonobstructed subjects to possible adverse effects of respiratory medication.
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4.
  • Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa, et al. (författare)
  • Is fruit and vegetable intake associated with asthma or chronic rhino-sinusitis in European adults? : Results from the Global Allergy and Asthma Network of Excellence (GA(2)LEN) Survey
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Translational Allergy. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 2045-7022 .- 2045-7022. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Fruits and vegetables are rich in compounds with proposed antioxidant, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, which could contribute to reduce the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases. Objective: We investigated the association between asthma, and chronic rhino-sinusitis (CRS) with intake of fruits and vegetables in European adults. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the Global Allergy and Asthma Network of Excellence (GA(2)LEN) screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15-75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Asthma score (derived from self-reported asthma symptoms) and CRS were the outcomes of interest. Dietary intake of 22 subgroups of fruits and vegetables was ascertained using the internationally validated GA(2)LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations were examined with negative binomial and multiple regressions. Simes procedure was used to control for multiple testing. Results: A total of 3206 individuals had valid data on asthma and dietary exposures of interest. 22.8% reported having at least 1 asthma symptom (asthma score >= 1), whilst 19.5% had CRS. After adjustment for potential confounders, asthma score was negatively associated with intake of dried fruits (beta-coefficient -2.34;95% confidence interval [CI] -4.09,-0.59), whilst CRS was statistically negatively associated with total intake of fruits (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.55, 0.97). Conversely, a positive association was observed between asthma score and alliums vegetables (adjusted beta-coefficient 0.23; 95% CI 0.06, 0.40). None of these associations remained statistically significant after controlling for multiple testing. Conclusion and clinical relevance: There was no consistent evidence for an association of asthma or CRS with fruit and vegetable intake in this representative sample of European adults.
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5.
  • Accordini, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence trends of airflow obstruction among European adults without asthma : a 20-year cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Investigating COPD trends may help healthcare providers to forecast future disease burden. We estimated sex- and smoking-specific incidence trends of pre-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (AO) among adults without asthma from 11 European countries within a 20-year follow-up (ECRHS and SAPALDIA cohorts). We also quantified the extent of misclassification in the definition based on pre-bronchodilator spirometry (using post-bronchodilator measurements from a subsample of subjects) and we used this information to estimate the incidence of post-bronchodilator AO (AO(post-BD)), which is the primary characteristic of COPD. AO incidence was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.5-5.3) male and 3.8 (3.1-4.6) female cases/1,000/year. Among ever smokers (median pack-years: 20, males; 12, females), AO incidence significantly increased with ageing in men only [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1-year increase: 1.05 (1.03-1.07)]. A strong exposure-response relationship with smoking was found both in males [IRR, 1-pack-year increase: 1.03 (1.02-1.04)] and females [1.03 (1.02-1.05)]. The positive predictive value of AO for AO(post-BD) was 59.1% (52.0-66.2%) in men and 42.6% (35.1-50.1%) in women. AO(post-BD) incidence was 2.6 (1.7-3.4) male and 1.6 (1.0-2.2) female cases/1,000/year. AO incidence was considerable in Europe and the sex-specific ageing-related increase among ever smokers was strongly related to cumulative tobacco exposure. AO(post-BD) incidence is expected to be half of AO incidence.
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6.
  • Amaral, Andre F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Chronic airflow obstruction and ambient particulate air pollution
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 76:12, s. 1236-1241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking is the most well-established cause of chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) but particulate air pollution and poverty have also been implicated. We regressed sex-specific prevalence of CAO from 41 Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study sites against smoking prevalence from the same study, the gross national income per capita and the local annual mean level of ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) using negative binomial regression. The prevalence of CAO was not independently associated with PM2.5 but was strongly associated with smoking and was also associated with poverty. Strengthening tobacco control and improved understanding of the link between CAO and poverty should be prioritised.
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8.
  • Amaral, Andre F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Tuberculosis associates with both airflow obstruction and low lung function : BOLD results
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 46:4, s. 1104-1112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In small studies and cases series, a history of tuberculosis has been associated with both airflow obstruction, which is characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and restrictive patterns on spirometry. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric abnormalities in adults. The study was performed in adults, aged 40 years and above, who took part in the multicentre, cross-sectional, general population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study, and had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and information on a history of tuberculosis. The associations between a history of tuberculosis and airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction were assessed within each participating centre, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. These estimates were stratified by high- and low/middle-income countries, according to gross national income. A self-reported history of tuberculosis was associated with airflow obstruction (adjusted odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI 1.83-3.42) and spirometric restriction (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.42-3.19). A history of tuberculosis was associated with both airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction, and should be considered as a potentially important cause of obstructive disease and low lung function, particularly where tuberculosis is common.
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9.
  • Bakolis, Ioannis, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary patterns and respiratory health in adults from nine European countries-Evidence from the GA2LEN study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 48:11, s. 1474-1482
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Dietary patterns defined using principal component analysis (PCA) offer an alternative to the analysis of individual foods and nutrients and have been linked with asthma and allergic disease. However, results have not been reproducible in different settings.Objective: To identify dietary patterns common to different European countries and examine their associations with asthma and allergic symptoms. Methods: In sixteen study centers in nine European countries, 3206 individuals aged 15-77 years completed a common, internationally validated, food frequency questionnaire and a respiratory symptoms questionnaire. The outcomes of interest were current asthma, asthma symptoms score (derived based on responses to 5 asthma symptom-related questions), atopy (positive skin prick test). Spirometry was used to estimate forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), the FEV1/FVC, spirometric restriction (FVC below the lower limit of normal (Results: Two dietary patterns emerged, generally correlating with the same foods in different countries: one associated with intake of animal proteins and carbohydrates; the other with fruit and vegetables. There was evidence that the former pattern was associated with a higher asthma score (RR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.33-2.01), current asthma (RR 2.03, 95% CI: 1.52-2.71), wheeze (RR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.30-2.60), atopic status (RR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.16-2.44) and with decreased lung function, including an FVC Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Our findings suggest an increase in sensitisation to common allergens, an increase in asthma symptoms, and a reduction in lung function in those eating a diet rich in animal proteins and carbohydrates. We found little evidence of an association between these outcomes and eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.
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10.
  • Broström, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • The prevalence of chronic airflow obstruction in three cities in the Nordic-Baltic region
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - : Saunders Elsevier. - 0954-6111 .- 1532-3064. ; 143, s. 8-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Back ground: Chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) is the primary characteristic of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is also seen in chronic asthma. Objective: To compare the prevalence of CAO and possible risk factors between Tartu in Estonia, Reykjavik in Iceland and Uppsala in Sweden. Methods: All participants underwent spirometry testing of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) before and after bronchodilation. CAO was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC below lower limit of normal. Information on respiratory diseases and smoking status, was obtained through questionnaires administered by trained interviewers. Results: 1037 men and 956 women participated in the study. The prevalence of CAO was lower in women in Tartu compared to the other centres (4.9% vs. 13.4 and 8.7% in Reykjavik and Uppsala, respectively, p = 0.002) while no difference was found for men. A similar picture was seen for the proportion of participants that had smoked 10 pack years or more which was much lower in Tartu for women than in Reykjavik and Uppsala, respectively (13.2% vs. 33.7 and 29.2%, p < 0.001). (Fig. 1). Of the participants with CAO the majority (57-67%) did not have a previous diagnosis of asthma or COPD. Conclusion: The prevalence of CAO was lower in Estonian women than in women from Iceland and Sweden. The reason for this was probably that the Estonian women had smoked less than the female participants from Iceland and Sweden. The majority of those with CAO do not have a diagnosed lung disease.
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