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Sökning: WFRF:(Burt Dave)

  • Resultat 1-6 av 6
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2.
  • Carlborg, Örjan, et al. (författare)
  • Simultaneous mapping of epistatic QTL in chickens reveals clusters of QTL pairs with similar genetic effects on growth.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Genetical research. ; 83:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We used simultaneous mapping of interacting quantitative trait locus (QTL) pairs to study various growth traits in a chicken F2 intercross. The method was shown to increase the number of detected QTLs by 30 % compared with a traditional method detecting QTLs by their marginal genetic effects. Epistasis was shown to be an important contributor to the genetic variance of growth, with the largest impact on early growth (before 6 weeks of age). There is also evidence for a discrete set of interacting loci involved in early growth, supporting the previous findings of different genetic regulation of early and late growth in chicken. The genotype-phenotype relationship was evaluated for all interacting QTL pairs and 17 of the 21 evaluated QTL pairs could be assigned to one of four clusters in which the pairs in a cluster have very similar genetic effects on growth. The genetic effects of the pairs indicate commonly occurring dominance-by-dominance, heterosis and multiplicative interactions. The results from this study clearly illustrate the increase in power obtained by using this novel method for simultaneous detection of epistatic QTL, and also how visualization of genotype-phenotype relationships for epistatic QTL pairs provides new insights to biological mechanisms underlying complex traits.
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3.
  • Fitzsimmons, Carolyn, 1975- (författare)
  • Exploring the Realm of Gene Expression Differences Between White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl Chickens
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis we attempted to elicit patterns of gene expression that influence phenotype, and that may also have been altered by thousands of years of domestication and selection, between red junglefowl and White Leghorn chickens. Red junglefowl are the wild ancestor to all domesticated chickens, and poultry in general are highly valued as a research animal and food resource. The project was also begun in order to complement an earlier study of an intercross between White Leghorn and red junglefowl, which identified several regions that were linked with phenotypic differences between the two birds.We began by creating our own cDNA microarray via generating four cDNA libraries from red junglefowl/White Leghorn brain and testis. We generated 12,549 unique transcripts. This included 400 new putative transcripts specific to chickens, and 180 transcripts that were not found in any other database. When investigating polymorphisms between White Leghorn and red junglefowl we found a SNP rate of 1.9/kb coding region, and a synonymous and non-synonymous percentage for these SNPs of 80 and 20% respectively.In the last two studies we used the cDNA microarray to measure gene expression differences between White Leghorn and red junglefowl in both hypothalamus/thalamus and liver. We found that there appears to be a significant number of genes down-regulated in White Leghorn hypothalamus/thalamus, plus an over-representation of up-regulated genes from well-known pathways, as compared with red junglefowl. We hypothesize that domestication/selection may be connected with this characteristic. We also found that the p-arm of chicken chromosome 4, which is an ancestral microchromosome, was over represented with differentially expressed genes in hypothalamus/thalamus. A number of differentially expressed genes are shared between the two tissues, and these genes are expressed in same manner between red junglefowl and White Leghorn.
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4.
  • Hillier, Ladeana W, et al. (författare)
  • Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 432:7018, s. 695-716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome--composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence and an estimated 20,000-23,000 genes--provides a new perspective on vertebrate genome evolution, while also improving the annotation of mammalian genomes. For example, the evolutionary distance between chicken and human provides high specificity in detecting functional elements, both non-coding and coding. Notably, many conserved non-coding sequences are far from genes and cannot be assigned to defined functional classes. In coding regions the evolutionary dynamics of protein domains and orthologous groups illustrate processes that distinguish the lineages leading to birds and mammals. The distinctive properties of avian microchromosomes, together with the inferred patterns of conserved synteny, provide additional insights into vertebrate chromosome architecture.
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5.
  • Jarvis, Erich D., et al. (författare)
  • Phylogenomic analyses data of the avian phylogenomics project
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: GigaScience. - 2047-217X .- 2047-217X. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Determining the evolutionary relationships among the major lineages of extant birds has been one of the biggest challenges in systematic biology. To address this challenge, we assembled or collected the genomes of 48 avian species spanning most orders of birds, including all Neognathae and two of the five Palaeognathae orders. We used these genomes to construct a genome-scale avian phylogenetic tree and perform comparative genomic analyses. Findings: Here we present the datasets associated with the phylogenomic analyses, which include sequence alignment files consisting of nucleotides, amino acids, indels, and transposable elements, as well as tree files containing gene trees and species trees. Inferring an accurate phylogeny required generating: 1) A well annotated data set across species based on genome synteny; 2) Alignments with unaligned or incorrectly overaligned sequences filtered out; and 3) Diverse data sets, including genes and their inferred trees, indels, and transposable elements. Our total evidence nucleotide tree (TENT) data set (consisting of exons, introns, and UCEs) gave what we consider our most reliable species tree when using the concatenation-based ExaML algorithm or when using statistical binning with the coalescence-based MP-EST algorithm (which we refer to as MP-EST*). Other data sets, such as the coding sequence of some exons, revealed other properties of genome evolution, namely convergence. Conclusions: The Avian Phylogenomics Project is the largest vertebrate phylogenomics project to date that we are aware of. The sequence, alignment, and tree data are expected to accelerate analyses in phylogenomics and other related areas.
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6.
  • Jarvis, Erich D., et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1320-1331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups we named Passerea and Columbea, representing independent lineages of diverse and convergently evolved land and water bird species. Among Passerea, we infer the common ancestor of core landbirds to have been an apex predator and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence and high levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago.
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