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Sökning: WFRF:(Cable J)

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1.
  • Antonelli, Alexandre, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Madagascar’s extraordinary biodiversity: Evolution, distribution, and use
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 378:6623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Madagascar’s biota is hyperdiverse and includes exceptional levels of endemicity. We review the current state of knowledge on Madagascar’s past and current terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity by compiling and presenting comprehensive data on species diversity, endemism, and rates of species description and human uses, in addition to presenting an updated and simplified map of vegetation types. We report a substantial increase of records and species new to science in recent years; however, the diversity and evolution of many groups remain practically unknown (e.g., fungi and most invertebrates). Digitization efforts are increasing the resolution of species richness patterns and we highlight the crucial role of field- and collections-based research for advancing biodiversity knowledge and identifying gaps in our understanding, particularly as species richness corresponds closely to collection effort. Phylogenetic diversity patterns mirror that of species richness and endemism in most of the analyzed groups. We highlight humid forests as centers of diversity and endemism because of their role as refugia and centers of recent and rapid radiations. However, the distinct endemism of other areas, such as the grassland-woodland mosaic of the Central Highlands and the spiny forest of the southwest, is also biologically important despite lower species richness. The documented uses of Malagasy biodiversity are manifold, with much potential for the uncovering of new useful traits for food, medicine, and climate mitigation. The data presented here showcase Madagascar as a unique “living laboratory” for our understanding of evolution and the complex interactions between people and nature. The gathering and analysis of biodiversity data must continue and accelerate if we are to fully understand and safeguard this unique subset of Earth’s biodiversity.
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  • Antonelli, Alexandre, et al. (författare)
  • Madagascar's extraordinary biodiversity: Evolution, distribution, and use
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 378:6623
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Madagascar's biota is hyperdiverse and includes exceptional levels of endemicity. We review the current state of knowledge on Madagascar's past and current terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity by compiling and presenting comprehensive data on species diversity, endemism, and rates of species description and human uses, in addition to presenting an updated and simplified map of vegetation types. We report a substantial increase of records and species new to science in recent years; however, the diversity and evolution of many groups remain practically unknown (e.g., fungi and most invertebrates). Digitization efforts are increasing the resolution of species richness patterns and we highlight the crucial role of field- and collections-based research for advancing biodiversity knowledge and identifying gaps in our understanding, particularly as species richness corresponds closely to collection effort. Phylogenetic diversity patterns mirror that of species richness and endemism in most of the analyzed groups. We highlight humid forests as centers of diversity and endemism because of their role as refugia and centers of recent and rapid radiations. However, the distinct endemism of other areas, such as the grassland-woodland mosaic of the Central Highlands and the spiny forest of the southwest, is also biologically important despite lower species richness. The documented uses of Malagasy biodiversity are manifold, with much potential for the uncovering of new useful traits for food, medicine, and climate mitigation. The data presented here showcase Madagascar as a unique "living laboratory" for our understanding of evolution and the complex interactions between people and nature. The gathering and analysis of biodiversity data must continue and accelerate if we are to fully understand and safeguard this unique subset of Earth's biodiversity.
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4.
  • Ralimanana, Hélène, et al. (författare)
  • Madagascar's extraordinary biodiversity : threats and opportunities
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 378:6623
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Madagascar's unique biota is heavily affected by human activity and is under intense threat. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the conservation status of Madagascar's terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity by presenting data and analyses on documented and predicted species-level conservation statuses, the most prevalent and relevant threats, ex situ collections and programs, and the coverage and comprehensiveness of protected areas. The existing terrestrial protected area network in Madagascar covers 10.4% of its land area and includes at least part of the range of the majority of described native species of vertebrates with known distributions (97.1% of freshwater fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals combined) and plants (67.7%). The overall figures are higher for threatened species (97.7% of threatened vertebrates and 79.6% of threatened plants occurring within at least one protected area). International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assessments and Bayesian neural network analyses for plants identify overexploitation of biological resources and unsustainable agriculture as the most prominent threats to biodiversity. We highlight five opportunities for action at multiple levels to ensure that conservation and ecological restoration objectives, programs, and activities take account of complex underlying and interacting factors and produce tangible benefits for the biodiversity and people of Madagascar.
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  • Brunner, Eric J., et al. (författare)
  • Appetite disinhibition rather than hunger explains genetic effects on adult BMI trajectory
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 45, s. 758-765
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The mediating role of eating behaviors in genetic susceptibility to weight gain during mid-adult life is not fully understood. This longitudinal study aims to help us understand contributions of genetic susceptibility and appetite to weight gain.SUBJECTS/METHODS: We followed the body-mass index (BMI) trajectories of 2464 adults from 45 to 65 years of age by measuring weight and height on four occasions at 5-year intervals. Genetic risk of obesity (gene risk score: GRS) was ascertained, comprising 92 BMI-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms and split at a median (=high and low risk). At the baseline, the Eating Inventory was used to assess appetite-related traits of 'disinhibition', indicative of opportunistic eating or overeating and 'hunger' which is susceptibility to/ability to cope with the sensation of hunger. Roles of the GRS and two appetite-related scores for BMI trajectories were examined using a mixed model adjusted for the cohort effect and sex.RESULTS: Disinhibition was associated with higher BMI (beta = 2.96; 95% CI: 2.66-3.25 kg/m(2)), and accounted for 34% of the genetically-linked BMI difference at age 45. Hunger was also associated with higher BMI (beta = 1.20; 0.82-1.59 kg/m(2)) during mid-life and slightly steeper weight gain, but did not attenuate the effect of disinhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Appetite disinhibition is most likely to be a defining characteristic of genetic susceptibility to obesity. High levels of appetite disinhibition, rather than hunger, may underlie genetic vulnerability to obesogenic environments in two-thirds of the population of European ancestry.
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  • Cable, N., et al. (författare)
  • Identifying Frail-Related Biomarkers among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Japan : A Research Example from the Japanese Gerontological Evaluation Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BioMed Research International. - : Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 2314-6133 .- 2314-6141.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined correlating clinical biomarkers for the physical aspect of frailty among community-dwelling older adults in Japan, using Japanese Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). We used information from the JAGES participants (N = 3,128) who also participated in the community health screening in 2010. We grouped participants' response to the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF) Frailty Index into robust (=0), intermediate frail (=1), and frail (=2+) ones to indicate physical aspect of frailty. Independent of sex and age, results from multinomial logistic regression showed above normal albumin and below normal HDL and haemoglobin levels were positively associated with intermediate frail (RRR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.22-3.23; RRR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.33-1.39; RRR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.23-1.51, resp.) and frail cases (RRR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.91-2.70; RRR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.51-1.68; RRR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.28-1.52, resp.). Limited to women, above normal Hb1Ac level was similarly associated with intermediate frail and frail cases (RRR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.38; RRR = 2.56, 95% CI = 2.23-2.95, resp.). Use of relevant clinical biomarkers can help in assessment of older adults' physical aspect of frailty.
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  • Mawhinney, C., et al. (författare)
  • Changes in quadriceps femoris muscle perfusion following different degrees of cold-water immersion
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology. - Rockville : American Physiological Society. - 8750-7587 .- 1522-1601. ; 128:5, s. 1392-1401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined the influence of graded cold-water immersion (CWI) on global and regional quadriceps muscle perfusion with positron emission tomography (PET) and [15O]H2O. In 30 healthy men [33 ± 8 yr; 81 ± 10 kg; 184 ± 5 cm; percentage body fat: 13 ± 5%; peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak): 47 ± 8 mL·kg-1·min-1] quadriceps perfusion, thigh and calf cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), intestinal, muscle, and local skin temperatures, thermal comfort, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were assessed before and after 10 min of CWI at 8°C, 15°C, or 22°C. Global quadriceps perfusion did not change beyond a clinically relevant threshold (0.75 mL·100 g·min-1) in any condition and was similar between conditions {range of differences [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 0.1 mL·100 g·min-1 (-0.9 to 1.2 mL·100 g·min-1) to 0.9 mL·100 g·min-1 (-0.2 to 1.9 mL·100 g·min-1)}. Muscle perfusion was greater in vastus intermedius (VI) compared with vastus lateralis (VL) (2.2 mL·100 g·min-1; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.0 mL·100 g·min-1) and rectus femoris (RF) (2.2 mL·100 g·min-1; 1.4 to 2.9 mL·100 g·min-1). A clinically relevant increase in VI muscle perfusion after immersion at 8°C and a decrease in RF muscle perfusion at 15°C were observed. A clinically relevant increase in perfusion was observed in VI in 8°C compared with 22°C water (2.3 mL·100 g·min-1; 1.1 to 3.5 mL·100 g·min-1). There were no clinically relevant between-condition differences in thigh CVC. Our findings suggest that CWI (8-22°C) does not reduce global quadriceps muscle perfusion to a clinically relevant extent; however, colder water increases (8°C) deep muscle perfusion and reduces (15°C) superficial muscle (RF) perfusion in the quadriceps muscle. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using positron emission tomography, we report for the first time muscle perfusion heterogeneity in the quadriceps femoris in response to different degrees of cold-water immersion (CWI). Noxious CWI temperatures (8°C) increase perfusion in the deep quadriceps muscle, whereas superficial quadriceps muscle perfusion is reduced in cooler (15°C) water. Therefore, these data have important implications for the selection of CWI approaches used in the treatment of soft tissue injury, while also increasing our understanding of the potential mechanisms underpinning CWI. Copyright © 2020 the American Physiological Society.
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