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1.
  • Chen, Ji, et al. (författare)
  • The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 53:6, s. 840-860
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10-8), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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2.
  • Demirkan, Ayse, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Circulating Phospho- and Sphingolipid Concentrations
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390. ; 8:2, s. e1002490-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phospho- and sphingolipids are crucial cellular and intracellular compounds. These lipids are required for active transport, a number of enzymatic processes, membrane formation, and cell signalling. Disruption of their metabolism leads to several diseases, with diverse neurological, psychiatric, and metabolic consequences. A large number of phospholipid and sphingolipid species can be detected and measured in human plasma. We conducted a meta-analysis of five European family-based genome-wide association studies (N = 4034) on plasma levels of 24 sphingomyelins (SPM), 9 ceramides (CER), 57 phosphatidylcholines (PC), 20 lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), 27 phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), and 16 PE-based plasmalogens (PLPE), as well as their proportions in each major class. This effort yielded 25 genome-wide significant loci for phospholipids (smallest P-value = 9.88 x 10(-204)) and 10 loci for sphingolipids (smallest P-value = 3.10 x 10(-57)). After a correction for multiple comparisons (P-value, 2.2 x 10(-9)), we observed four novel loci significantly associated with phospholipids (PAQR9, AGPAT1, PKD2L1, PDXDC1) and two with sphingolipids (PLD2 and APOE) explaining up to 3.1% of the variance. Further analysis of the top findings with respect to within class molar proportions uncovered three additional loci for phospholipids (PNLIPRP2, PCDH20, and ABDH3) suggesting their involvement in either fatty acid elongation/saturation processes or fatty acid specific turnover mechanisms. Among those, 14 loci (KCNH7, AGPAT1, PNLIPRP2, SYT9, FADS1-2-3, DLG2, APOA1, ELOVL2, CDK17, LIPC, PDXDC1, PLD2, LASS4, and APOE) mapped into the glycerophospholipid and 12 loci (ILKAP, ITGA9, AGPAT1, FADS1-2-3, APOA1, PCDH20, LIPC, PDXDC1, SGPP1, APOE, LASS4, and PLD2) to the sphingolipid pathways. In large meta-analyses, associations between FADS1-2-3 and carotid intima media thickness, AGPAT1 and type 2 diabetes, and APOA1 and coronary artery disease were observed. In conclusion, our study identified nine novel phospho- and sphingolipid loci, substantially increasing our knowledge of the genetic basis for these traits.
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3.
  • Evangelou, Evangelos, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic analysis of over 1 million people identifies 535 new loci associated with blood pressure traits.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:10, s. 1412-1425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.
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4.
  • Graham, Sarah E, et al. (författare)
  • The power of genetic diversity in genome-wide association studies of lipids.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-4687 .- 0028-0836. ; 600:7890, s. 675-679
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased blood lipid levels are heritable risk factors of cardiovascular disease with varied prevalence worldwide owing to different dietary patterns and medication use1. Despite advances in prevention and treatment, in particular through reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels2, heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide3. Genome-wideassociation studies (GWAS) of blood lipid levels have led to important biological and clinical insights, as well as new drug targets, for cardiovascular disease. However, most previous GWAS4-23 have been conducted in European ancestry populations and may have missed genetic variants that contribute to lipid-level variation in other ancestry groups. These include differences in allele frequencies, effect sizes and linkage-disequilibrium patterns24. Here we conduct a multi-ancestry, genome-wide genetic discovery meta-analysis of lipid levels in approximately 1.65 million individuals, including 350,000 of non-European ancestries. We quantify the gain in studying non-European ancestries and provide evidence to support the expansion of recruitment of additional ancestries, even with relatively small sample sizes. We find that increasing diversity rather than studying additional individuals of European ancestry results in substantial improvements in fine-mapping functional variants and portability of polygenic prediction (evaluated in approximately 295,000 individuals from 7 ancestry groupings). Modest gains in the number of discovered loci and ancestry-specific variants were also achieved. As GWAS expand emphasis beyond the identification of genes and fundamental biology towards the use of genetic variants for preventive and precision medicine25, we anticipate that increased diversity of participants will lead to more accurate and equitable26 application of polygenic scores in clinical practice.
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5.
  • Hicks, Andrew A., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic determinants of circulating sphingolipid concentrations in European populations
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404. ; 5:10, s. e1000672-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sphingolipids have essential roles as structural components of cell membranes and in cell signalling, and disruption of their metabolism causes several diseases, with diverse neurological, psychiatric, and metabolic consequences. Increasingly, variants within a few of the genes that encode enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism are being associated with complex disease phenotypes. Direct experimental evidence supports a role of specific sphingolipid species in several common complex chronic disease processes including atherosclerotic plaque formation, myocardial infarction (MI), cardiomyopathy, pancreatic β-cell failure, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, sphingolipids represent novel and important intermediate phenotypes for genetic analysis, yet little is known about the major genetic variants that influence their circulating levels in the general population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) between 318,237 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and levels of circulating sphingomyelin (SM), dihydrosphingomyelin (Dih-SM), ceramide (Cer), and glucosylceramide (GluCer) single lipid species (33 traits); and 43 matched metabolite ratios measured in 4,400 subjects from five diverse European populations. Associated variants (32) in five genomic regions were identified with genome-wide significant corrected p-values ranging down to 9.08×10−66. The strongest associations were observed in or near 7 genes functionally involved in ceramide biosynthesis and trafficking: SPTLC3, LASS4, SGPP1, ATP10D, and FADS1–3. Variants in 3 loci (ATP10D, FADS3, and SPTLC3) associate with MI in a series of three German MI studies. An additional 70 variants across 23 candidate genes involved in sphingolipid-metabolizing pathways also demonstrate association (p = 10−4 or less). Circulating concentrations of several key components in sphingolipid metabolism are thus under strong genetic control, and variants in these loci can be tested for a role in the development of common cardiovascular, metabolic, neurological, and psychiatric diseases.
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6.
  • Howe, Laurence J., et al. (författare)
  • Within-sibship genome-wide association analyses decrease bias in estimates of direct genetic effects
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 54:5, s. 581-592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estimates from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of unrelated individuals capture effects of inherited variation (direct effects), demography (population stratification, assortative mating) and relatives (indirect genetic effects). Family-based GWAS designs can control for demographic and indirect genetic effects, but large-scale family datasets have been lacking. We combined data from 178,086 siblings from 19 cohorts to generate population (between-family) and within-sibship (within-family) GWAS estimates for 25 phenotypes. Within-sibship GWAS estimates were smaller than population estimates for height, educational attainment, age at first birth, number of children, cognitive ability, depressive symptoms and smoking. Some differences were observed in downstream SNP heritability, genetic correlations and Mendelian randomization analyses. For example, the within-sibship genetic correlation between educational attainment and body mass index attenuated towards zero. In contrast, analyses of most molecular phenotypes (for example, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) were generally consistent. We also found within-sibship evidence of polygenic adaptation on taller height. Here, we illustrate the importance of family-based GWAS data for phenotypes influenced by demographic and indirect genetic effects. Within-sibship genome-wide association analyses using data from 178,076 siblings illustrate differences between population-based and within-sibship GWAS estimates for phenotypes influenced by demographic and indirect genetic effects.
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7.
  • Howe, Laurence J., et al. (författare)
  • Within-sibship genome-wide association analyses decrease bias in estimates of direct genetic effects
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : NATURE PORTFOLIO. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 54:5, s. 581-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estimates from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of unrelated individuals capture effects of inherited variation (direct effects), demography (population stratification, assortative mating) and relatives (indirect genetic effects). Family-based GWAS designs can control for demographic and indirect genetic effects, but large-scale family datasets have been lacking. We combined data from 178,086 siblings from 19 cohorts to generate population (between-family) and within-sibship (within-family) GWAS estimates for 25 phenotypes. Within-sibship GWAS estimates were smaller than population estimates for height, educational attainment, age at first birth, number of children, cognitive ability, depressive symptoms and smoking. Some differences were observed in downstream SNP heritability, genetic correlations and Mendelian randomization analyses. For example, the within-sibship genetic correlation between educational attainment and body mass index attenuated towards zero. In contrast, analyses of most molecular phenotypes (for example, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) were generally consistent. We also found within-sibship evidence of polygenic adaptation on taller height. Here, we illustrate the importance of family-based GWAS data for phenotypes influenced by demographic and indirect genetic effects. Within-sibship genome-wide association analyses using data from 178,076 siblings illustrate differences between population-based and within-sibship GWAS estimates for phenotypes influenced by demographic and indirect genetic effects.
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8.
  • Huffman, Jennifer E., et al. (författare)
  • Modulation of Genetic Associations with Serum Urate Levels by Body-Mass-Index in Humans
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 10:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non BMI-stratified overall sample were performed. The former did not uncover any novel locus with a major main effect, but supported modulation of effects for some known and potentially new urate loci. The latter highlighted a SNP at RBFOX3 reaching genome-wide significant level (effect size 0.014, 95% CI 0.008-0.02, P-inter= 2.6 x 10(-8)). Two top loci in interaction term analyses, RBFOX3 and ERO1LB-EDAR-ADD, also displayed suggestive differences in main effect size between the lean and obese strata. All top ranking loci for urate effect differences between BMI categories were novel and most had small magnitude but opposite direction effects between strata. They include the locus RBMS1-TANK (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 4.7 x 10(-8)), a region that has been associated with several obesity related traits, and TSPYL5 (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 9.1 x 10(-8)), regulating adipocytes-produced estradiol. The top-ranking known urate loci was ABCG2, the strongest known gout risk locus, with an effect halved in obese compared to lean men (Pdifflean-obese= 2 x 10(-4)). Finally, pathway analysis suggested a role for N-glycan biosynthesis as a prominent urate-associated pathway in the lean stratum. These results illustrate a potentially powerful way to monitor changes occurring in obesogenic environment.
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9.
  • Huffman, Jennifer E., et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in B3GAT1, SLC9A9 and MGAT5 are associated with variation within the human plasma N-glycome of 3533 European adults
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 20:24, s. 5000-5011
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The majority of human proteins are post-translationally modified by covalent addition of one or more complex oligosaccharides (glycans). Alterations in glycosylation processing are associated with numerous diseases and glycans are attracting increasing attention both as disease biomarkers and as targets for novel therapeutic approaches. Using a recently developed high-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method, we have reported, in a pilot genome-wide association study of 13 glycan features in 2705 individuals from three European populations, that polymorphisms at three loci (FUT8, FUT6/FUT3 and HNF1A) affect plasma levels of N-glycans. Here, we extended the analysis to 33 directly measured and 13 derived glycosylation traits in 3533 individuals and identified three novel gene association (MGAT5, B3GAT1 and SLC9A9) as well as replicated the previous findings using an additional European cohort. MGAT5 (meta-analysis association P-value = 1.80 x 10(-10) for rs1257220) encodes a glycosyltransferase which is known to synthesize the associated glycans. In contrast, neither B3GAT1 (rs7928758, P = 1.66 x 10(-08)) nor SLC9A9 (rs4839604, P = 3.50 x 10(-13)) had previously been associated functionally with glycosylation of plasma proteins. Given the glucuronyl transferase activity of B3GAT1, we were able to show that glucuronic acid is present on antennae of plasma glycoproteins underlying the corresponding HPLC peak. SLC9A9 encodes a proton pump which affects pH in the endosomal compartment and it was recently reported that changes in Golgi pH can impair protein sialylation, giving a possible mechanism for the observed association.
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10.
  • Johansson, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants in the JAZF1 gene associated with height identified by linkage and genome-wide association analysis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 18:2, s. 373-380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genes for height has gained interest for decades, but only recently have candidate genes started to be identified. We have performed linkage analysis and genome-wide association for height in approximately 4,000 individuals from five European populations. A total of 5 chromosomal regions showed suggestive linkage and in one of these regions, two SNPs (rs849140 and rs1635852) were associated with height (nominal p=7.0 x 10(-8) and p=9.6 x 10(-7) respectively). In total, five SNPs across the genome showed an association with height that reached the threshold of genome-wide significance (nominal p<1.6 x 10(-7)). The association with height was replicated for two SNPs (rs1635852 and rs849140) using three independent studies (N=31,077, N=1,268 and N=5,746) with overall meta p-values of 9.4x10(-10) and 5.3x10(-8). These SNPs are located in the JAZF1 gene, which has recently been associated with type II diabetes, prostate and endometrial cancer. JAZF1 is a transcriptional repressor of NR2C2, which results in low IGF1 serum concentrations, perinatal and early postnatal hypoglycaemia and growth retardation when knocked-out in mice. Both the linkage and association analyses independently identified the JAZF1 region affecting human height. We have demonstrated, through replication in additional independent populations, the consistency of the effect of the JAZF1 SNPs on height. Since this gene also has a key function in the metabolism of growth, JAZF1 represents one of the strongest candidates influencing human height so far identified.
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