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Sökning: WFRF:(Canova C.)

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2.
  • Anantharaman, Devasena, et al. (författare)
  • Combined effects of smoking and HPV16 in oropharyngeal cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1464-3685 .- 0300-5771. ; 45:3, s. 61-752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Although smoking and HPV infection are recognized as important risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer, how their joint exposure impacts on oropharyngeal cancer risk is unclear. Specifically, whether smoking confers any additional risk to HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is not understood.METHODS: Using HPV serology as a marker of HPV-related cancer, we examined the interaction between smoking and HPV16 in 459 oropharyngeal (and 1445 oral cavity and laryngeal) cancer patients and 3024 control participants from two large European multi-centre studies. Odds ratios and credible intervals [CrI], adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated using Bayesian logistic regression.RESULTS: Both smoking [odds ratio (OR [CrI]: 6.82 [4.52, 10.29]) and HPV seropositivity (OR [CrI]: 235.69 [99.95, 555.74]) were independently associated with oropharyngeal cancer. The joint association of smoking and HPV seropositivity was consistent with that expected on the additive scale (synergy index [CrI]: 1.32 [0.51, 3.45]), suggesting they act as independent risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer.CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was consistently associated with increase in oropharyngeal cancer risk in models stratified by HPV16 seropositivity. In addition, we report that the prevalence of oropharyngeal cancer increases with smoking for both HPV16-positive and HPV16-negative persons. The impact of smoking on HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer highlights the continued need for smoking cessation programmes for primary prevention of head and neck cancer.
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3.
  • Cohen, J., et al. (författare)
  • Influence of physicians' life stances on attitudes to end-of-life decisions and actual end-of-life decision-making in six countries
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Ethics. - 0306-6800 .- 1473-4257. ; 34:4, s. 247-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To examine how physicians' life stances affect their attitudes to end-of-life decisions and their actual end-of-life decision-making. Methods: Practising physicians from various specialties involved in the care of dying patients in Belgium, Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Australia received structured questionnaires on end-of-life care, which included questions about their life stance. Response rates ranged from 53% in Australia to 68% in Denmark. General attitudes, intended behaviour with respect to two hypothetical patients, and actual behaviour were compared between all large life-stance groups in each country. Results: Only small differences in life stance were found in all countries in general attitudes and intended and actual behaviour with regard to various end-of-life decisions. However, with regard to the administration of drugs explicitly intended to hasten the patient's death (PAD), physicians with specific religious affiliations had significantly less accepting attitudes, and less willingness to perform it, than non-religious physicians. They had also actually performed PAD less often. However, in most countries, both Catholics (up to 15.7% in The Netherlands) and Protestants (up to 20.4% in The Netherlands) reported ever having made such a decision. Discussion: The results suggest that religious teachings influence to some extent end-of-life decision-making, but are certainly not blankly accepted by physicians, especially when dealing with real patients and circumstances. Physicians seem to embrace religious belief in a non-imperative way, allowing adaptation to particular situations.
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4.
  • Canova, C., et al. (författare)
  • Perinatal and antibiotic exposures and the risk of developing childhood-onset inflammatory bowel disease : A nested case-control study based on a population-based birth cohort
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 17:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of early-life environmental exposures on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) onset remains unclear. We aimed to quantify the impact of perinatal conditions and antibiotic use in the first 6 and 12 months of life, on the risk of childhood-onset IBD, in a birth cohort of the region Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy). A nested case-control design on a longitudinal cohort of 213,515 newborns was adopted. Conditional binomial regression models were used to estimate Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all analyzed risk factors. We identified 164 individuals with IBD onset before the age of 18 years and 1640 controls. None of the considered perinatal conditions were associated with IBD. Analyses on antibiotic exposure were based on 70 cases and 700 controls. Risks were significantly higher for children with ≥4 antibiotic prescriptions in the first 6 and 12 months of life (OR = 6.34; 95%CI 1.68–24.02 and OR = 2.91; 95%CI 1.31–6.45, respectively). This association was present only among patients with Crohn’s disease and those with earlier IBD onset. We found that perinatal characteristics were not associated to IBD, while the frequent use of antibiotics during the first year of life was associated to an increased risk of developing subsequent childhood-onset IBD.
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5.
  • Canova, C., et al. (författare)
  • The influence of sensitisation to pollens and moulds on seasonal variations in asthma attacks
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 42:4, s. 935-945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • No large study has described the seasonal variation in asthma attacks in population-based asthmatics in whom sensitisation to allergen has been measured. 2637 young adults with asthma living in 15 countries reported the months in which they usually had attacks of asthma and had skin-prick tests performed. Differences in seasonal patterns by sensitisation status were assessed using generalised estimating equations. Most young adults with asthma reported periods of the year when their asthma attacks were more common (range: 47% in Sweden to 86% in Spain). Seasonal variation in asthma was not modified by sensitisation to house dust mite or cat allergens. Asthmatics sensitised to grass, birch and Alternaria allergens had different seasonal patterns to those not sensitised to each allergen, with some geographical variation. In southern Europe, those sensitised to grass allergens were more likely to report attacks occurred in spring or summer than in winter (OR March/April 2.60, 95% CI 1.70-3.97; OR May/June 4.43, 95% CI 2.34-8.39) and smaller later peaks were observed in northern Europe (OR May/June 1.25, 95% CI 0.60-2.64; OR July/August 1.66, 95% CI 0.89-3.10). Asthmatics reporting hay fever but who were not sensitised to grass showed no seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in asthma attacks in young adults are common and are different depending on sensitisation to outdoor, but not indoor, allergens.
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6.
  • Canova, Cristina, et al. (författare)
  • Coeliac disease and asthma association in children : the role of antibiotic consumption
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 46:1, s. 115-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relationship between coeliac disease and asthma has been scarcely investigated. Infant antibiotic exposure has been linked to both diseases. We evaluated the association between childhood coeliac disease and asthma and the role of antibiotics in the first year of life. We followed a cohort of children born in 1995-2011 in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region (Italy). Prescriptions for antibiotics in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma were retrieved from drug prescription records; coeliac disease incident cases were identified from pathology reports, hospital discharges and exemption from prescription charges for clinical tests.We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using multivariate Poisson regression models. Among the 143 144 children, we identified 717 coeliac children and 34 969 asthmatics. Children with asthma were at increased risk of coeliac disease (IRR 1.46, 95% CI 1.25-1.67). Restricting the analysis to asthma that occurred before the diagnosis of coeliac disease, the excess risk disappeared, except for coeliac disease diagnosed after 5 years of age (IRR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.71). Antibiotics were not a confounding factor in these associations. Childhood treated asthma and coeliac disease are significantly associated. This association is not confounded by antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and may be explained by other shared risk factors.
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7.
  • Canova, Cristina, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of bacterial pneumonia and pneumococcal infection in youths with celiac disease - A population-based study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Digestive and Liver Disease. - : Elsevier. - 1590-8658 .- 1878-3562. ; 51:8, s. 1101-1105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Assess the risk of hospitalizations for bacterial pneumonia or pneumococcal infections, in a cohort of young individuals with celiac disease (CD) compared to matched references.Study design: The cohort consists of 213,635 individuals, born in 1989-2012 and resident in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy). Through pathology reports, hospital discharge records or co-payment exemptions, we identified 1294 CD patients and 6470 reference individuals matched by gender and birth year. We considered hospital admissions for first episodes of bacterial pneumonia and pneumococcal infections. Hazard ratios (HRs) for episodes after CD diagnosis were calculated with Cox regression and odds ratios (OR) for the ones before CD diagnosis with conditional logistic regression. Further analyses were performed on unvaccinated follow-up periods.Results: 14 CD patients (in 9450 person-years) and 42 references (in 48,335 person-years) experienced a first episode of bacterial pneumonia, with an increased risk among CD patients (HR 1.82; 95% CI 0.98-3.35). Risks of bacterial pneumonia were significantly increased before CD diagnosis and especially the year before CD diagnosis (OR 6.00, 95% CI 1.83-19.66). Risks of pneumococcal infections showed a non-significant increase in CD patients.Conclusions: CD children and youth showed an increased risk of bacterial pneumonia, especially in proximity to CD diagnosis. Anti-pneumococcal vaccination should be recommended to all young CD patients. (C) 2019 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Canova, Cristina, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of Fractures in Youths with Celiac Disease-A Population-Based Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Pediatrics. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0022-3476 .- 1097-6833. ; 198, s. 117-120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To assess the risk of any fracture requiring hospital care in a cohort of individuals with celiac disease diagnosed in childhood/adolescence compared with reference individuals matched by age and sex. Study design Our study cohort consisted of 213 635 people born and residing in Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region, Italy, in 1989-2011. We selected, through pathology reports, hospital discharge records, or co-payment exemptions, 1233 individuals with celiac disease (aged 0-17 years at diagnosis) and compared them with 6167 reference individuals matched by sex and year of birth. Fractures were identified through hospital discharge records. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for any fracture after celiac disease diagnosis (or index date for reference individuals) with Cox regression and ORs for any fracture before celiac disease diagnosis with conditional logistic regression. Results During the follow-up period (maximum 23 years), 22 individuals with celiac disease (9394 person-years) and 128 reference individuals (47 308 person-years) experienced a fracture. giving an overall HR of 0.87 (95% CI 0.55-1.37). The risk was not modified by sex, age at diagnosis, or calendar period of diagnosis. We obtained similar HRs when excluding fractures occurring after the age of 18 years and adjusting for maternal education or vitamin D supplementation. The odds of previous fracture also did not differ between subjects with celiac disease and reference individuals (22 and 96 cases, respectively: OR 1.15: 95% CI 0.72-1.84). Conclusions We did not find any evidence of an increased risk of fractures during childhood and youth among patients with celiac disease.
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9.
  • Canova, Cristina, et al. (författare)
  • The risk of epilepsy in children with celiac disease : a population-based cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 27:6, s. 1089-1095
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: The purpose was to estimate the risk of epilepsy in a cohort of young individuals with celiac disease (CD) compared to that of matched references.Methods: The cohort consists of 213,635 individuals born during 1989-2011 and residing in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy). We identified 1,215 individuals affected by CD and 6,075 reference individuals matched by sex and age. Epilepsy was defined by means of hospital diagnosis or drug prescriptions. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of having epilepsy among individuals with CD, before CD diagnosis and in the entire period, compared with those of their matched references. Cox regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for epilepsy diagnosed after CD diagnosis. Different definitions of epilepsy were used for sensitivity analyses.Results: Thirty-one (2.6%) individuals with CD and 78 (1.3%) reference individuals had epilepsy (adjusted OR: 2.03 95%CI: 1.33-3.10). The risk of epilepsy was increased prior to CD (adjusted OR: 2.29; 95%CI: 1.33-3.94), with similar estimates after CD diagnosis (adjusted HR 1.96; 95%CI: 0.95-4.02). The increased risk of epilepsy was not explained by a peak in epilepsy diagnosis just around CD diagnosis. Sex stratification found a significantly higher risk of epilepsy among female individuals with CD. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the positive association between CD and epilepsy.Conclusion: Children and youths with CD were at increased risk of epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy without a clear etiology should be screened for CD since an early diagnosis and treatment might improve the response to antiepileptic therapies.
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10.
  • Furberg, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 42:5, s. 134-441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Consistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior1,2. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) and Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline (Ox-GSK) consortia to follow up the 15 most significant regions (n > 140,000). We identified three loci associated with number of cigarettes smoked per day. The strongest association was a synonymous 15q25 SNP in the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA3 (rs1051730[A], b = 1.03, standard error (s.e.) = 0.053, beta = 2.8 x 10(-73)). Two 10q25 SNPs (rs1329650[G], b = 0.367, s. e. = 0.059, beta = 5.7 x 10(-10); and rs1028936[A], b = 0.446, s. e. = 0.074, beta = 1.3 x 10(-9)) and one 9q13 SNP in EGLN2 (rs3733829[G], b = 0.333, s. e. = 0.058, P = 1.0 x 10(-8)) also exceeded genome-wide significance for cigarettes per day. For smoking initiation, eight SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance, with the strongest association at a nonsynonymous SNP in BDNF on chromosome 11 (rs6265[C], odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.04-1.08, P = 1.8 x 10(-8)). One SNP located near DBH on chromosome 9 (rs3025343[G], OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.08-1.18, P = 3.6 x 10(-8)) was significantly associated with smoking cessation.
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