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Sökning: WFRF:(Carey Cayelan C.)

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1.
  • Donis, Daphne, et al. (författare)
  • Stratification strength and light climate explain variation in chlorophyll a at the continental scale in a European multilake survey in a heatwave summer
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - : Wiley. - 0024-3590 .- 1939-5590. ; 66:12, s. 4314-4333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To determine the drivers of phytoplankton biomass, we collected standardized morphometric, physical, and biological data in 230 lakes across the Mediterranean, Continental, and Boreal climatic zones of the European continent. Multilinear regression models tested on this snapshot of mostly eutrophic lakes (median total phosphorus [TP] = 0.06 and total nitrogen [TN] = 0.7 mg L-1), and its subsets (2 depth types and 3 climatic zones), show that light climate and stratification strength were the most significant explanatory variables for chlorophyll a (Chl a) variance. TN was a significant predictor for phytoplankton biomass for shallow and continental lakes, while TP never appeared as an explanatory variable, suggesting that under high TP, light, which partially controls stratification strength, becomes limiting for phytoplankton development. Mediterranean lakes were the warmest yet most weakly stratified and had significantly less Chl a than Boreal lakes, where the temperature anomaly from the long-term average, during a summer heatwave was the highest (+4 degrees C) and showed a significant, exponential relationship with stratification strength. This European survey represents a summer snapshot of phytoplankton biomass and its drivers, and lends support that light and stratification metrics, which are both affected by climate change, are better predictors for phytoplankton biomass in nutrient-rich lakes than nutrient concentrations and surface temperature.
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2.
  • Hampton, Stephanie E., et al. (författare)
  • Ecology under lake ice
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology Letters. - 1461-023X .- 1461-0248. ; 20:1, s. 98-111
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass.
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3.
  • Mantzouki, Evanthia, et al. (författare)
  • Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Toxins. - : MDPI. - 2072-6651 .- 2072-6651. ; 10:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins). Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a) and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin) due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale. Direct and indirect effects of temperature were the main drivers of the spatial distribution in the toxins produced by the cyanobacterial community, the toxin concentrations and toxin quota. Generalized linear models showed that a Toxin Diversity Index (TDI) increased with latitude, while it decreased with water stability. Increases in TDI were explained through a significant increase in toxin variants such as MC-YR, anatoxin and cylindrospermopsin, accompanied by a decreasing presence of MC-LR. While global warming continues, the direct and indirect effects of increased lake temperatures will drive changes in the distribution of cyanobacterial toxins in Europe, potentially promoting selection of a few highly toxic species or strains.
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4.
  • Yang, Bernard, et al. (författare)
  • A New Thermal Categorization of Ice-Covered Lakes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 48:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lakes are traditionally classified based on their thermal regime and trophic status. While this classification adequately captures many lakes, it is not sufficient to understand seasonally ice‐covered lakes, the most common lake type on Earth. We describe the inverse thermal stratification in 19 highly varying lakes and derive a model that predicts the temperature profile as a function of wind stress, area, and depth. The results suggest an additional subdivision of seasonally ice‐covered lakes to differentiate underice stratification. When ice forms in smaller and deeper lakes, inverse stratification will form with a thin buoyant layer of cold water (near 0°C) below the ice, which remains above a deeper 4°C layer. In contrast, the entire water column can cool to ∼0°C in larger and shallower lakes. We suggest these alternative conditions for dimictic lakes be termed “cryostratified” and “cryomictic.”
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5.
  • Shade, Ashley, et al. (författare)
  • Can the black box be cracked? : The augmentation of microbial ecology by high-resolution, automated sensing technologies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The ISME Journal. - 1751-7362. ; 3:8, s. 881-888
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Automated sensing technologies, 'ASTs,' are tools that can monitor environmental or microbial-related variables at increasingly high temporal resolution. Microbial ecologists are poised to use AST data to couple microbial structure, function and associated environmental observations on temporal scales pertinent to microbial processes. In the context of aquatic microbiology, we discuss three applications of ASTs: windows on the microbial world, adaptive sampling and adaptive management. We challenge microbial ecologists to push AST potential in helping to reveal relationships between microbial structure and function.
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6.
  • Carey, Cayelan C., et al. (författare)
  • First report of microcystin-LR in the cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia echinulata
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology. - 1520-4081 .- 1522-7278. ; 22:3, s. 337-339
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gloeotrichia echinulata is a bloom-forming cyanobacterium that is common in eutrophic lakes, and less prevalent but increasing in oligotrophic lakes. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis to test for the presence of the hepatotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in G. echinulata collected from an oligotrophic lake in central New Hampshire, USA. We found that G. echinulata contained MC-LR at mean concentrations of 97.07 +/- 7.78 (1 s.e.) ng MC-LR g(-1) dry wt colonies. This suggests that recent outbreaks of G. echinulata in oligotrophic lakes used as water sources throughout New England (USA) may pose a health concern. The toxicity of G. echinulata reported here suggests the need for future monitoring of microcystins in oligotrophic lakes.
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7.
  • Carey, Cayelan C., et al. (författare)
  • Lake trophic status can be determined by the depth distribution of sediment phosphorus
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - 0024-3590 .- 1939-5590. ; 56:6, s. 2051-2063
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this meta-analysis, we examine how sediment phosphorus (P) burial pattern may be related to trophic state. We present sediment P profiles from 94 lakes that demonstrate fundamental differences in P burial between oligotrophic and eutrophic systems. In sediments of eutrophic (>= 30 mu g water column total P (TP) L-1) lakes, P concentrations are elevated in the surficial sediments in comparison with deeper layers, representing a large P pool that can be recycled. This pattern directly contrasts with sediment P profiles in oligotrophic lakes (< 10 mu g water column TP L-1), which exhibit increasing concentrations of permanently buried P with depth. Sediment processes regulating P burial may be important regulators of internal P recycling and consequently lake trophic status. Thus, mesotrophic lakes (10 to 30 mu g water column TP L-1), which exhibit consistent P concentrations with depth, are more vulnerable to external P inputs than oligotrophic lakes because they are at their maximal sediment P burial flux. Our data suggest that thresholds in sediment P pattern may correlate with thresholds in sediment P burial processes and consequently may indicate whether deposited P will be released to the water column.
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8.
  • Carey, Cayelan C., et al. (författare)
  • The cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia echinulata stimulates the growth of other phytoplankton
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Plankton Research. - : Oxford University Press. - 0142-7873. ; 32:9, s. 1349-1354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We tested the effect of the cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia echinulata on a diverse array of phytoplankton. We found that Gloeotrichia increased the growth rates of five of seven phytoplankton species up to 620% in comparison with a medium-only control after 96 h.
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9.
  • Kara, Emily L., et al. (författare)
  • Time-scale dependence in numerical simulations : Assessment of physical, chemical, and biological predictions in a stratified lake at temporal scales of hours to months
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Environmental Modelling & Software. - 1364-8152 .- 1873-6726. ; 35, s. 104-121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We evaluated the predictive ability of a one-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model across multiple temporal scales using wavelet analysis and traditional goodness-of-fit metrics. High-frequency in situ automated sensor data and long-term manual observational data from Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, USA, were used to parameterize, calibrate, and evaluate model predictions. We focused specifically on short-term predictions of temperature, dissolved oxygen, and phytoplankton biomass over one season. Traditional goodness-of-fit metrics indicated more accurate prediction of physics than chemical or biological variables in the time domain. This was confirmed by wavelet analysis in both the time and frequency domains. For temperature, predicted and observed global wavelet spectra were closely related, while observed dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll fluorescence spectral characteristics were not reproduced by the model for key time scales, indicating that processes not modeled may be important drivers of the observed signal. Although the magnitude and timing of physical and biological changes were simulated adequately at the seasonal time scale through calibration, time scale-specific dynamics, for example short-term cycles, were difficult to reproduce, and were relatively insensitive to the effects of varying parameters. The use of wavelet analysis is novel to aquatic ecosystem modeling, is complementary to traditional goodness-of-fit metrics, and allows for assessment of variability at specific temporal scales. In this way, the effect of processes operating at distinct temporal scales can be isolated and better understood, both in situ and in silico. Wavelet transforms are particularly well suited for assessment of temporal and spatial heterogeneity when coupled to high-frequency data from automated in situ or remote sensing platforms.
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10.
  • Reinl, Kaitlin L., et al. (författare)
  • Cyanobacterial blooms in oligotrophic lakes : Shifting the high-nutrient paradigm
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Freshwater Biology. - 0046-5070 .- 1365-2427. ; 66:9, s. 1846-1859
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Freshwater cyanobacterial blooms have become ubiquitous, posing major threats to ecological and public health. Decades of research have focused on understanding drivers of these blooms with a primary focus on eutrophic systems; however, cyanobacterial blooms also occur in oligotrophic systems, but have received far less attention, resulting in a gap in our understanding of cyanobacterial blooms overall. In this review, we explore evidence of cyanobacterial blooms in oligotrophic freshwater systems and provide explanations for those occurrences. We show that through their unique physiological adaptations, cyanobacteria are able to thrive under a wide range of environmental conditions, including low-nutrient waterbodies. We contend that to fully understand cyanobacterial blooms, and thereby mitigate and manage them, we must expand our inquiries to consider systems along the trophic gradient, and not solely focus on eutrophic systems, thus shifting the high-nutrient paradigm to a trophic-gradient paradigm.
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