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Sökning: WFRF:(Carmichael O)

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1.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
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2.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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3.
  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
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  • Carmichael, Theron W., et al. (författare)
  • Two Intermediate-mass Transiting Brown Dwarfs from the TESS Mission
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : IOP Publishing. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 160:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of two intermediate-mass transiting brown dwarfs (BDs), TOI-569b and TOI-1406b, from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite mission. TOI-569b has an orbital period of P=.55604±0.00016 days, a mass of Mb = 64.1±1.9 MJ, and a radius of Rb = 0.75±0.02 RJ. Its host star, TOI-569, has a mass of Må = 1.21±0.05 M, a radius of Rå = 1.47±0.03 R, [Fe H 0.29 0.09] = + dex, and an effective temperature of Teff = 5768±10K. TOI-1406b has an orbital period of P=10.57415±0.00063 days, a mass of Mb = 46.0± 2.7 MJ, and a radius of Rb = 0.86±0.03 RJ. The host star for this BD has a mass of Må = 1.18±0.09 M, a radius of Rå = 1.35±0.03 R, [Fe/H] =-0.08± 0.09 dex, and an effective temperature of Teff = 6290±100 K. Both BDs are in circular orbits around their host stars and are older than 3 Gyr based on stellar isochrone models of the stars. TOI-569 is one of two slightly evolved stars known to host a transiting BD (the other being KOI-415). TOI-1406b is one of three known transiting BDs to occupy the mass range of 40-50 MJ and one of two to have a circular orbit at a period near 10 days (with the first being KOI-205b). Both BDs have reliable ages from stellar isochrones, in addition to their well-constrained masses and radii, making them particularly valuable as tests for substellar isochrones in the BD mass-radius diagram.
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9.
  • Jack, C. R., et al. (författare)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers & Dementia. - 1552-5260. ; 11:7, s. 740-756
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is now in its 10th year. The primary objective of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) core of ADNI has been to improve methods for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders. Methods: We review the contributions of the MRI core from present and past cycles of ADNI (ADNI-1, -Grand Opportunity and -2). We also review plans for the future-ADNI-3. Results: Contributions of the MRI core include creating standardized acquisition protocols and quality control methods; examining the effect of technical features of image acquisition and analysis on outcome metrics; deriving sample size estimates for future trials based on those outcomes; and piloting the potential utility of MR perfusion, diffusion, and functional connectivity measures in multicenter clinical trials. Discussion: Over the past decade the MRI core of ADNI has fulfilled its mandate of improving methods for clinical trials in AD and will continue to do so in the future. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Alzheimer's Association.
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