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Sökning: WFRF:(Chavez Alejandro)

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  • Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro F., et al. (författare)
  • Fuel saving strategies in the Andes : long-term impacts for Peru, Colombia and Ecuador
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Energy Strategy Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 2211-467X .- 2211-4688. ; 20, s. 35-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Crude oil exports and imports play a crucial role in the trade balance of Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. These countries are looking into fossil fuel saving measures as a way to deal with increasing demands and decreasing oil production rates. However, studies about the long-term effects of these measures is lacking. Using a combination of energy simulation technics, 17 fuel saving strategies ranging from fuel switching to the investment in underground transport and hydropower capacity expansion were modelled and assessed to evaluate their long-term effect on fossil fuels demand reduction. Our results show that the full implementation of strategies can account for cumulative oil savings of over 550 million barrels of oil by 2030. Findings also point out that Ecuador and Colombia could face the transition from net oil-exporters to importers as soon as the end of the next decade.
  • ForestPlots.net, undefined, et al. (författare)
  • Taking the pulse of Earth's tropical forests using networks of highly distributed plots
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Biological Conservation. - : Elsevier BV. - 0006-3207 .- 1873-2917. ; 260
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tropical forests are the most diverse and productive ecosystems on Earth. While better understanding of these forests is critical for our collective future, until quite recently efforts to measure and monitor them have been largely disconnected. Networking is essential to discover the answers to questions that transcend borders and the horizons of funding agencies. Here we show how a global community is responding to the challenges of tropical ecosystem research with diverse teams measuring forests tree-by-tree in thousands of long-term plots. We review the major scientific discoveries of this work and show how this process is changing tropical forest science. Our core approach involves linking long-term grassroots initiatives with standardized protocols and data management to generate robust scaled-up results. By connecting tropical researchers and elevating their status, our Social Research Network model recognises the key role of the data originator in scientific discovery. Conceived in 1999 with RAINFOR (South America), our permanent plot networks have been adapted to Africa (AfriTRON) and Southeast Asia (T-FORCES) and widely emulated worldwide. Now these multiple initiatives are integrated via ForestPlots.net cyber-infrastructure, linking colleagues from 54 countries across 24 plot networks. Collectively these are transforming understanding of tropical forests and their biospheric role. Together we have discovered how, where and why forest carbon and biodiversity are responding to climate change, and how they feedback on it. This long-term pan-tropical collaboration has revealed a large long-term carbon sink and its trends, as well as making clear which drivers are most important, which forest processes are affected, where they are changing, what the lags are, and the likely future responses of tropical forests as the climate continues to change. By leveraging a remarkably old technology, plot networks are sparking a very modern revolution in tropical forest science. In the future, humanity can benefit greatly by nurturing the grassroots communities now collectively capable of generating unique, long-term understanding of Earth's most precious forests.
  • Jaiswal, Siddhartha, et al. (författare)
  • Age-Related Clonal Hematopoiesis Associated with Adverse Outcomes.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793. ; 371:26, s. 2488-2498
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The incidence of hematologic cancers increases with age. These cancers are associated with recurrent somatic mutations in specific genes. We hypothesized that such mutations would be detectable in the blood of some persons who are not known to have hematologic disorders. Methods We analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from DNA in the peripheral-blood cells of 17,182 persons who were unselected for hematologic phenotypes. We looked for somatic mutations by identifying previously characterized single-nucleotide variants and small insertions or deletions in 160 genes that are recurrently mutated in hematologic cancers. The presence of mutations was analyzed for an association with hematologic phenotypes, survival, and cardiovascular events. Results Detectable somatic mutations were rare in persons younger than 40 years of age but rose appreciably in frequency with age. Among persons 70 to 79 years of age, 80 to 89 years of age, and 90 to 108 years of age, these clonal mutations were observed in 9.5% (219 of 2300 persons), 11.7% (37 of 317), and 18.4% (19 of 103), respectively. The majority of the variants occurred in three genes: DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1. The presence of a somatic mutation was associated with an increase in the risk of hematologic cancer (hazard ratio, 11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 to 32.6), an increase in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.8), and increases in the risks of incident coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4) and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.8). Conclusions Age-related clonal hematopoiesis is a common condition that is associated with increases in the risk of hematologic cancer and in all-cause mortality, with the latter possibly due to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
  • Lagunas-Rangel, Francisco Alejandro, et al. (författare)
  • FLT3–ITD and its current role in acute myeloid leukaemia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Medical Oncology. - : Springer Nature. - 1357-0560 .- 1559-131X. ; 34:6
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a proto-oncogene involved in crucial steps of haematopoiesis such as proliferation, differentiation and survival. In recent years, FLT3 has been an important marker in different haematological malignancies, highlighting in acute myeloid leukaemia, where FLT3 mutations have been associated with the clinical prognosis, treatment and survival of patients. The most common form of FLT3 mutation is an internal tandem duplication (ITD) that promotes ligand-independent auto-phosphorylation and constitutive activation of the receptor. FLT3–ITD has been strongly associated with a bad prognosis, leukocytosis, high blast counts, increased risk of relapse and shorter overall survival. In order to improve the clinical condition of FLT3–ITD-positive patients, several FLT3 inhibitors have been developed showing variable results. Currently, the main challenges to be overcome are the different forms of resistance to FLT3 inhibitors. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present, in a general way, the current role that FLT3–ITD mutation plays in patients with AML, with a particular emphasis on the molecular mechanisms associated with clinical prognosis, treatment, and survival of patients.
  • Lagunas-Rangel, Francisco Alejandro, et al. (författare)
  • Learning of nature : The curious case of the naked mole rat
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. - : Elsevier BV. - 0047-6374 .- 1872-6216. ; 164, s. 76-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Naked mole rats (NMRs) are the longest-living rodents known, living up to approximately 30 years and showing sustained good health. Nowadays, NMRs are considered excellent models for aging and, additionally, for cancer research, due to the evidence of a remarkable cancer resistance demonstrated through thousands of necropsies performed with very few cases that describe this pathology, which is believed to be a disease that unavoidably accompanies aging. Since some years ago, several studies have tried to explain the possible mechanisms underlying longevity and cancer resistance in NMRs through different perspectives and directions, creating new knowledge that subsequently could be used for cancer prevention and delaying aging in humans. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge on naked mole rats with a particular emphasis on the molecular mechanisms associated with their longevity and cancer resistance.
  • Lagunas-Rangel, Francisco Alejandro, et al. (författare)
  • What do we know about the antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2?
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Immunobiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0171-2985 .- 1878-3279. ; 226:2
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide causing a pandemic with millions of infected people and deaths. Currently, the scientific community is working hard to develop a specific vaccine or treatment. However, since antibody production is an important part of the adaptive immune response, to develop vaccines and therapies, we must understand the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this work, we summarize the most important findings of antibody-mediated immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and highlight its role in the efficient use of plasma from convalescent patients and the direct application of antibodies as treatment.
  • Lopez-Feldman, Alejandro, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • COVID-19: Impacts on the environment and the achievement of the SDGS in Latin America
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Desarrollo y Sociedad. - 0120-3584 .- 1900-7760. ; 2020:86, s. 104-132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The social and economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures to contain it in Latin America could lead to a series of long run consequences that could impact the region’s achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This article is the result of the collaboration of environmental economists from eight of the region’s countries and it discusses the possible pandemic effects on air pollution, deforestation, and other relevant environmental aspects related to the SDG. In addition to reviewing some of the initial effects of the sanitary crisis on the environment, we discuss its potential effects in terms of environmental regulations and public policy interventions. Finally, we discuss a new research agenda with topics derived from the pandemic as well as topics that have recently become more relevant because of it, including its impact on achieving the SDG.
  • Lopez-Feldman, Alejandro, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • Environmental Impacts and Policy Responses to Covid-19: A View from Latin America
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Environmental and Resource Economics. - 0924-6460 .- 1573-1502.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • COVID-19 is currently having major short run effects with possible serious long run implications for the environment and the management of natural resources in Latin America. We discuss the possible effects of the pandemic on air pollution, deforestation and other relevant environmental dimensions across the region. With contributions from environmental economists from eight countries, we give an overview of the initial and expected environmental effects of this health crisis. We discuss potential effects on environmental regulations, possible policy interventions, and an agenda for future research for those interested in the design and evaluation of environmental policies relevant for the Latin American context.
  • Vora, Suhani, et al. (författare)
  • Rational design of a compact CRISPR-Cas9 activator for AAV-mediated delivery
  • 2018
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Akin to Zinc Finger and Transcription Activator Like Effector based transcriptional modulators, nuclease-null CRISPR-Cas9 provides a groundbreaking programmable DNA binding platform, begetting an arsenal of targetable regulators for transcriptional and epigenetic perturbation, by either directly tethering, or recruiting, transcription enhancing effectors to either component of the Cas9/guide RNA complex. Application of these programmable regulators is now gaining traction for the modulation of disease-causing genes or activation of therapeutic genes, in vivo. Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) is an optimal delivery vehicle for in vivo delivery of such regulators to adult somatic tissue, due to the efficacy of viral delivery with minimal concerns about immunogenicity or integration. However, present Cas9 activator systems are notably beyond the packaging capacity of a single AAV delivery vector capsid. Here, we engineer a compact CRISPR-Cas9 activator for convenient AAV-mediated delivery. We validate efficacy of the CRISPR-Cas9 transcriptional activation using AAV delivery in several cell lines.
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