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Sökning: WFRF:(Chi CY)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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3.
  • Adler, SS, et al. (författare)
  • PHENIX on-line systems
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - : Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 499:2-3, s. 560-592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX On-Line system takes signals from the Front End Modules (FEM) on each detector subsystem for the purpose of generating events for physics analysis. Processing of event data begins when the Data Collection Modules (DCM) receive data via fiber-optic links from the FEMs. The DCMs format and zero suppress the data and generate data packets. These packets go to the Event Builders (EvB) that assemble the events in final form. The Level-1 trigger (LVL1) generates a decision for each beam crossing and eliminates uninteresting events. The FEMs carry out all detector processing of the data so that it is delivered to the DCMs using a standard format. The FEMs also provide buffering for LVL1 trigger processing and DCM data collection. This is carried out using an architecture that is pipelined and deadtimeless. All of this is controlled by the Master Timing System (MTS) that distributes the RHIC clocks. A Level-2 trigger (LVL2) gives additional discrimination. A description of the components and operation of the PHENIX On-Line system is given and the solution to a number of electronic infrastructure problems are discussed. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Feitosa, Mary F., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic associations for blood pressure identified via gene-alcohol interaction in up to 570K individuals across multiple ancestries
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public library science. - 1932-6203. ; 13:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study accounting for gene-alcohol consumption interaction for BP might identify additional BP loci and contribute to the understanding of alcohol-related BP regulation. We conducted a large two-stage investigation incorporating joint testing of main genetic effects and single nucleotide variant (SNV)-alcohol consumption interactions. In Stage 1, genome-wide discovery meta-analyses in approximate to 131 K individuals across several ancestry groups yielded 3,514 SNVs (245 loci) with suggestive evidence of association (P <1.0 x 10(-5)). In Stage 2, these SNVs were tested for independent external replication in individuals across multiple ancestries. We identified and replicated (at Bonferroni correction threshold) five novel BP loci (380 SNVs in 21 genes) and 49 previously reported BP loci (2,159 SNVs in 109 genes) in European ancestry, and in multi-ancestry meta-analyses (P < 5.0 x 10(-8)). For African ancestry samples, we detected 18 potentially novel BP loci (P< 5.0 x 10(-8)) in Stage 1 that warrant further replication. Additionally, correlated meta-analysis identified eight novel BP loci (11 genes). Several genes in these loci (e.g., PINX1, GATA4, BLK, FTO and GABBR2 have been previously reported to be associated with alcohol consumption. These findings provide insights into the role of alcohol consumption in the genetic architecture of hypertension.
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5.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Centrality dependence of the high (PT) charged hadron suppression in Au+Au collisions at root s(NN)=130 GeV
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 561:1-2, s. 82-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PHENIX has measured the centrality dependence of charged hadron p(T) spectra from Au +An collisions at root(s)NN = 130 GeV The truncated mean p(T) decreases with centrality for p(T) > 2 GeV/c, indicating an apparent reduction of the contribution from hard scattering to high p(T) hadrdn production. For central collisions the yield at high p(T) is shown to be suppressed compared to binary nucleon-nucleon collision scaling of p + p, data. This suppression is monotonically increasing with centrality, but most of the change occurs below 30% centrality, i.e., for collisions with less than similar to140 participating nucleons. The observed p(T) and centrality dependence is consistent with the particle production predicted by models including hard scattering and subsequent energy loss of the scattered partons in the dense matter created in the collisions. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
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6.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Event-by-event fluctuations in mean p(T) and mean E(T) in root s(NN)=130 GeVAu+Au collisions
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 66:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Distributions of event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum and mean transverse energy near mid-rapidity have been measured in Au+Au collisions at roots(NN)=130 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. By comparing the distributions to what is expected for statistically independent particle emission, the magnitude of nonstatistical fluctuations in mean transverse momentum is determined to be consistent with zero. Also, no significant nonrandom fluctuations in mean transverse energy are observed. By constructing a fluctuation model with two event classes that preserve the mean and variance of the semi-inclusive p(T) or e(T) spectra, we exclude a region of fluctuations in roots(NN)=130 GeV Au+Au collisions.
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7.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Flow Measurements via Two-Particle Azimuthal Correlations in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt[sNN]=130 GeV
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two-particle azimuthal correlation functions are presented for charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (sqrt[sNN]=130 GeV). The measurements permit determination of elliptic flow without event-by-event estimation of the reaction plane. The extracted elliptic flow values (v2) show significant sensitivity to both the collision centrality and the transverse momenta of emitted hadrons, suggesting rapid thermalization and relatively strong velocity fields. When scaled by the eccentricity of the collision zone ε, the scaled elliptic flow shows little or no dependence on centrality for charged hadrons with relatively low pT. A breakdown of this ε scaling is observed for charged hadrons with pT >1.0 GeV/c.
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8.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC: Experimental evaluation by the PHENIX Collaboration
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Physics, Section A. - : Elsevier. - 0375-9474. ; 757:1-2, s. 184-283
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extensive experimental data from high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions were recorded using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The comprehensive set of measurements from the first three years of RHIC operation includes charged particle multiplicities, transverse energy, yield ratios and spectra of identified hadrons in a wide range of transverse momenta (PT), elliptic flow, two-particle correlations, nonstatistical fluctuations, and suppression of particle production at high PT. The results are examined with an emphasis on implications for the formation of a new state of dense matter. We find that the state of matter created at RHIC cannot be described in terms of ordinary color neutral hadrons.
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9.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of Lambda and (Lambda)over-bar particles in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=130 GeV
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 89:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present results on the measurement of Lambda and (&ULambda;) over bar production in Au+Au collisions at roots(NN)=130 GeV with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The transverse momentum spectra were measured for minimum bias and for the 5% most central events. The (&ULambda;) over bar/Lambda ratios are constant as a function of p(T) and the number of participants. The measured net Lambda density is significantly larger than predicted by models based on hadronic strings (e.g., HIJING) but in approximate agreement with models which include the gluon-junction mechanism.
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10.
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of single electrons and implications for charm production in Au+Au collisions at root(NN)-N-S=130 GeV
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 88:19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transverse momentum spectra of electrons from Au+Au collisions at roots(NN) = 130 GeV have been measured at midrapidity by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The spectra show an excess above the background from photon conversions and light hadron decays. The electron signal is consistent with that expected from semileptonic decays of charm. The yield of the electron signal dN(e)/dy for p(T) > 0.8 GeV/c is 0.025 +/- 0.004(stat) +/- 0.010( syst) in central collisions, and the corresponding charm cross section is 380 +/- 60(stat) +/- 200(syst ) mub per binary nucleon-nucleon collision.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 42
  • [1]2345Nästa

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