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Sökning: WFRF:(Chiang Chern En)

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  • Adamsson, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy of dapagliflozin in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction according to body mass index.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European journal of heart failure. - : Wiley. - 1879-0844 .- 1388-9842. ; 23:10, s. 1662-1672
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there is an 'obesity paradox', where survival is better in patients with a higher body mass index (BMI) and weight loss is associated with worse outcomes. We examined the effect of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor according to baseline BMI in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF).Body mass index was examined using standard categories, i.e. underweight (<18.5 kg/m2 ); normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2 ); overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2 ); obesity class I (30.0-34.9 kg/m2 ); obesity class II (35.0-39.9 kg/m2 ); and obesity class III (≥40 kg/m2 ). The primary outcome in DAPA-HF was the composite of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. Overall, 1348 patients (28.4%) were under/normal-weight, 1722 (36.3%) overweight, 1013 (21.4%) obesity class I and 659 (13.9%) obesity class II/III. The unadjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the primary outcome with obesity class 1, the lowest risk group, as reference was: under/normal-weight 1.41 (1.16-1.71), overweight 1.18 (0.97-1.42), obesity class II/III 1.37 (1.10-1.72). Patients with class I obesity were also at lowest risk of death. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome and other outcomes did not vary by baseline BMI, e.g. hazard ratio for primary outcome: under/normal-weight 0.74 (0.58-0.94), overweight 0.81 (0.65-1.02), obesity class I 0.68 (0.50-0.92), obesity class II/III 0.71 (0.51-1.00) (P-value for interaction = 0.79). The mean decrease in weight at 8 months with dapagliflozin was 0.9 (0.7-1.1) kg (P < 0.001).We confirmed an 'obesity survival paradox' in HFrEF. We showed that dapagliflozin was beneficial across the wide range of BMI studied.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03036124.
  • Bhatt, Deepak L., et al. (författare)
  • Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the effect of ticagrelor on health outcomes in diabetes mellitus patients Intervention study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cardiology. - : Wiley. - 0160-9289 .- 1932-8737. ; 42:5, s. 498-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the setting of prior myocardial infarction, the oral antiplatelet ticagrelor added to aspirin reduced the risk of recurrent ischemic events, especially, in those with diabetes mellitus. Patients with stable coronary disease and diabetes are also at elevated risk and might benefit from dual antiplatelet therapy. The Effect of Ticagrelor on Health Outcomes in diabEtes Mellitus patients Intervention Study (THEMIS, NCT01991795) is a Phase 3b randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of ticagrelor vs placebo, on top of low dose aspirin. Patients >= 50 years with type 2 diabetes receiving anti-diabetic medications for at least 6 months with stable coronary artery disease as determined by a history of previous percutaneous coronary intervention, bypass grafting, or angiographic stenosis of >= 50% of at least one coronary artery were enrolled. Patients with known prior myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke were excluded. The primary efficacy endpoint is a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The primary safety endpoint is Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. A total of 19 220 patients worldwide have been randomized and at least 1385 adjudicated primary efficacy endpoint events are expected to be available for analysis, with an expected average follow-up of 40 months (maximum 58 months). Most of the exposure is on a 60 mg twice daily dose, as the dose was lowered from 90 mg twice daily partway into the study. The results may revise the boundaries of efficacy for dual antiplatelet therapy and whether it has a role outside acute coronary syndromes, prior myocardial infarction, or percutaneous coronary intervention.
  • Chiang, Chern-En, et al. (författare)
  • Alirocumab and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Previous Myocardial Infarction : Prespecified Subanalysis From ODYSSEY OUTCOMES
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0828-282X .- 1916-7075. ; 38:10, s. 1542-1549
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: After acute coronary syndrome (ACS), patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI) may be at particularly high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and death. We studied the effects of the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab in patients with recent ACS according to previous history of MI.METHODS: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial compared alirocumab with placebo, beginning 1 to 12 months after ACS with median 2.8-year follow-up. The primary MACE outcome comprised death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal MI, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, and hospitalization for unstable angina. Of 18,924 patients, 3633 (19.2%) had previous MI.RESULTS: Patients with previous MI were older, more likely male, with more cardiovascular risk factors and previous events. With placebo, 4-year risks of MACE and death were higher among those with vs without previous MI (20.5% vs 8.9%, P < 0.001; 7.4% vs 3.4%, P < 0.001, respectively). Alirocumab reduced the risk of events regardless of the presence or absence of a history of MI (MACE, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-1.05 vs 0.82, 0.73-0.92; Pinteraction = 0.34; death, aHR 0.84; 95% CI, 0.64-1.08 vs 0.87, 0.72-1.05; Pinteraction = 0.81). Estimated absolute risk reductions with alirocumab were numerically greater with vs without previous MI (MACE, 1.91% vs 1.42%; death, 1.35% vs 0.41%).CONCLUSIONS: A previous history of MI places patients with recent ACS at high risk for recurrent MACE and death. Alirocumab reduced the relative risks of these events consistently in patients with or without previous MI but with numerically greater absolute benefit in the former subgroup. (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES: NCT01663402).
  • Chiang, Chern-En, et al. (författare)
  • Suboptimal Control of Lipid Levels : Results from 29 Countries Participating in the Centralized Pan-Regional Surveys on the Undertreatment of Hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. - : Japan Atherosclerosis Society. - 1880-3873 .- 1340-3478. ; 23:5, s. 567-587
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Five multicentre, cross-sectional Centralized Pan-Regional Surveys on the Undertreatment of Hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) were conducted in 29 countries across Asia, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. The surveys assessed the current use and efficacy of lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) worldwide and identified possible patient and physician characteristics associated with failure to attain low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. The aim of this analysis was to consolidate the global results from these surveys. Methods: The surveys involved patients aged >= 18 years who had been prescribed LLDs for at least 3 months without dose changes for at least 6 weeks. A single visit was scheduled for data collection, including fasting plasma lipid and glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk profile and LDL-C goal attainment were assessed according to the 2004 updated US National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Results: In total, 35 121 patients (mean age: 60.4 years) were included, and 90.3% had been prescribed statin monotherapy. Overall, only 49.4% of patients reached their recommended LDL-C level. LDL-C goals were attained in 54.8% (5084/9273) and 22.8% (3287/14 429) of patients were at high and very high cardiovascular risk, respectively. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of LDL-C goal attainment were lower baseline cardiovascular risk; presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or history of cardiovascular disease; and treatment with simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin (vs. all other LLDs). Conclusion: LDL-C goal attainment in patients taking LLDs is suboptimal worldwide, particularly in patients at high and very high cardiovascular risk.
  • McMurray, John J V, et al. (författare)
  • Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The New England journal of medicine. - 1533-4406 .- 0028-4793. ; 381, s. 1995-2008
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes.In this phase 3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 4744 patients with New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive either dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (hospitalization or an urgent visit resulting in intravenous therapy for heart failure) or cardiovascular death.Over a median of 18.2 months, the primary outcome occurred in 386 of 2373 patients (16.3%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 502 of 2371 patients (21.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). A first worsening heart failure event occurred in 237 patients (10.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 326 patients (13.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.83). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 227 patients (9.6%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 273 patients (11.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98); 276 patients (11.6%) and 329 patients (13.9%), respectively, died from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97). Findings in patients with diabetes were similar to those in patients without diabetes. The frequency of adverse events related to volume depletion, renal dysfunction, and hypoglycemia did not differ between treatment groups.Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, the risk of worsening heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes was lower among those who received dapagliflozin than among those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036124.).
  • Petrie, Mark C, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Dapagliflozin on Worsening Heart Failure and Cardiovascular Death in Patients With Heart Failure With and Without Diabetes.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA. - : American Medical Association (AMA). - 1538-3598 .- 0098-7484. ; 323:14, s. 1353-1368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Additional treatments are needed for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may be an effective treatment for patients with HFrEF, even those without diabetes.To evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF with and without diabetes.Exploratory analysis of a phase 3 randomized trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with New York Heart Association classification II to IV with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% and elevated plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were enrolled between February 15, 2017, and August 17, 2018, with final follow-up on June 6, 2019.Addition of once-daily 10 mg of dapagliflozin or placebo to recommended therapy.The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. This outcome was analyzed by baseline diabetes status and, in patients without diabetes, by glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7% vs greater than or equal to 5.7%.Among 4744 patients randomized (mean age, 66 years; 1109 [23%] women; 2605 [55%] without diabetes), 4742 completed the trial. Among participants without diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 171 of 1298 (13.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 231 of 1307 (17.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.88]). In patients with diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 215 of 1075 (20.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and 271 of 1064 (25.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.63-0.90]) (P value for interaction = .80). Among patients without diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 53 of 438 patients (12.1%) in the dapagliflozin group and 71 of 419 (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.47-0.96]). In patients with a glycated hemoglobin of at least 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 118 of 860 patients (13.7%) in the dapagliflozin group and 160 of 888 (18.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59-0.94]) (P value for interaction = .72). Volume depletion was reported as an adverse event in 7.3% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.1% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 7.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 7.8% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. A kidney adverse event was reported in 4.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.0% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 8.5% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 8.7% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes.In this exploratory analysis of a randomized trial of patients with HFrEF, dapagliflozin compared with placebo, when added to recommended therapy, significantly reduced the risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death independently of diabetes status.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.
  • Potpara, Tatjana S., et al. (författare)
  • Viewpoint: Stroke Prevention in Recent Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation : An Appraisal
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-9343 .- 1555-7162. ; 130:7, s. 773-779
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Formal guidelines play an important role in disseminating the best available evidence knowledge and are expected to provide simple and practical recommendations for the most optimal management of patients with various conditions. Such guidelines have important implications for many disease states, which thereby could be more professionally managed in everyday clinical practice by clinicians with divergent educational backgrounds, and also more easily implemented in wards or outpatient clinics, eliminating inequalities in health care management. In this brief Viewpoint we provide an appraisal on the recommendations pertinent to the prevention of atrial fibrillation-related stroke or systemic thromboembolism, as provided in recently published guidelines for the management of this arrhythmia.
  • Serenelli, Matteo, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of dapagliflozin according to baseline systolic blood pressure in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF).
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1522-9645 .- 0195-668X. ; 41:36, s. 3402-3418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Concern about hypotension often leads to withholding of beneficial therapy in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, which lowers systolic blood pressure (SBP),according to baseline SBP in Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF).Key inclusion criteria were: New York Heart Association Class II-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level, and SBP ≥95 mmHg. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. The efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin were examined using SBP as both a categorical and continuous variable. A total of 1205 patients had a baseline SBP <110 mmHg; 981 ≥ 110 < 120; 1149 ≥ 120 < 130; and 1409 ≥ 130 mmHg. The placebo-corrected reduction in SBP from baseline to 2 weeks with dapagliflozin was -2.54 (-3.33 to -1.76) mmHg (P < 0.001), with a smaller between-treatment difference in patients in the lowest compared to highest SBP category. Patients in the lowest SBP category had a much higher rate (per 100 person-years) of the primary outcome [20.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 17.6-24.2] than those in the highest SBP category (13.8, 11.7-16.4). The benefit and safety of dapagliflozin was consistent across the range of SBP; hazard ratio (95% CI) in each SBP group, lowest to highest: 0.76 (0.60-0.97), 0.76 (0.57-1.02), 0.81 (0.61-1.08), and 0.67 (0.51-0.87), P interaction = 0.78. Study drug discontinuation did not differ between dapagliflozin and placebo across the SBP categories examined.Dapagliflozin had a small effect on SBP in patients with HFrEF and was superior to placebo in improving outcomes, and well tolerated, across the range of SBP included in DAPA-HF.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03036124.
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