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Sökning: WFRF:(Chiotis Konstantinos)

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1.
  • Frisoni, G. B., et al. (författare)
  • Strategic roadmap for an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease based on biomarkers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 16:8, s. 661-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can be improved by the use of biological measures. Biomarkers of functional impairment, neuronal loss, and protein deposition that can be assessed by neuroimaging (ie, MRI and PET) or CSF analysis are increasingly being used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease in research studies and specialist clinical settings. However, the validation of the clinical usefulness of these biomarkers is incomplete, and that is hampering reimbursement for these tests by health insurance providers, their widespread clinical implementation, and improvements in quality of health care. We have developed a strategic five-phase roadmap to foster the clinical validation of biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease, adapted from the approach for cancer biomarkers. Sufficient evidence of analytical validity (phase 1 of a structured framework adapted from oncology) is available for all biomarkers, but their clinical validity (phases 2 and 3) and clinical utility (phases 4 and 5) are incomplete. To complete these phases, research priorities include the standardisation of the readout of these assays and thresholds for normality, the evaluation of their performance in detecting early disease, the development of diagnostic algorithms comprising combinations of biomarkers, and the development of clinical guidelines for the use of biomarkers in qualified memory clinics.
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2.
  • Chiotis, Konstantinos, et al. (författare)
  • Imaging in-vivo tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease with THK5317 PET in a multimodal paradigm
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 43:9, s. 1686-1699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The aim of this study was to explore the cerebral distribution of the tau-specific PET tracer [F-18]THK5317 (also known as (S)-[F-18]THK5117) retention in different stages of Alzheimer's disease; and study any associations with markers of hypometabolism and amyloid-beta deposition. Methods Thirty-three individuals were enrolled, including nine patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia, thirteen with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), two with non-Alzheimer's disease dementia, and nine healthy controls (five young and four elderly). In a multi-tracer PET design [F-18]THK5317, [C-11] Pittsburgh compound B ([C-11]PIB), and [F-18]FDG were used to assess tau pathology, amyloid-beta deposition and cerebral glucose metabolism, respectively. The MCI patients were further divided into MCI [C-11]PIB-positive (n=11) and MCI [C-11]PIB-negative (n=2) groups. Results Test-retest variability for [F-18]THK5317-PET was very low (1.17-3.81 %), as shown by retesting five patients. The patients with prodromal (MCI [C-11]PIB-positive) and dementia-stage Alzheimer's disease had significantly higher [F-18]THK5317 retention than healthy controls (p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively) in areas exceeding limbic regions, and their discrimination from this control group (using the area under the curve) was >98 %. Focal negative correlations between [F-18]THK5317 retention and [F-18]FDG uptake were observed mainly in the frontal cortex, and focal positive correlations were found between [F-18]THK5317 and [C-11] PIB retentions isocortically. One patient with corticobasal degeneration syndrome and one with progressive supranuclear palsy showed no [C-11]PIB but high [F-18]THK5317 retentions with a different regional distribution from that in Alzheimer's disease patients. Conclusions The tau-specific PET tracer [F-18]THK5317 images in vivo the expected regional distribution of tau pathology. This distribution contrasts with the different patterns of hypometabolism and amyloid-beta deposition.
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3.
  • Iaccarino, Leonardo, et al. (författare)
  • A Cross-Validation of FDG- and Amyloid-PET Biomarkers in Mild Cognitive Impairment for the Risk Prediction to Dementia due to Alzheimer's Disease in a Clinical Setting
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 59:2, s. 603-614
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Assessments of brain glucose metabolism (F-18-FDG-PET) and cerebral amyloid burden (C-11-PiB-PET) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have shown highly variable performances when adopted to predict progression to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (ADD). This study investigates, in a clinical setting, the separate and combined values of F-18-FDGPET and C-11-PiB-PET in ADD conversion prediction with optimized data analysis procedures. Respectively, we investigate the accuracy of an optimized SPM analysis for F-18-FDG-PET and of standardized uptake value ratio semiquantification for C-11-PiB-PET in predicting ADD conversion in 30 MCI subjects (age 63.57 +/- 7.78 years). Fourteen subjects converted to ADD during the follow-up (median 26.5 months, inter-quartile range 30 months). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.89 and of 0.81 for, respectively, F-18-FDG-PET and C-11-PiB-PET. F-18-FDG-PET, compared to C-11-PiB-PET, showed higher specificity (1.00 versus 0.62, respectively), but lower sensitivity (0.79 versus 1.00). Combining the biomarkers improved classification accuracy (AUC = 0.96). During the follow-up time, all the MCI subjects positive for both PET biomarkers converted to ADD, whereas all the subjects negative for both remained stable. The difference in survival distributions was confirmed by a log-rank test (p = 0.002). These results indicate a very high accuracy in predicting MCI to ADD conversion of both F-18-FDG-PET and C-11-PiB-PET imaging, the former showing optimal performance based on the SPM optimized parametric assessment. Measures of brain glucose metabolism and amyloid load represent extremely powerful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers with complementary roles in prodromal dementia phase, particularly when tailored to individual cases in clinical settings.
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4.
  • Jonasson, My, et al. (författare)
  • Optimal timing of tau pathology imaging and automatic extraction of a reference region using dynamic [18F]THK5317 PET
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - 0353-8842 .- 2213-1582. ; 22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • [F-18]THK5317 is a PET tracer for in-vivo imaging of tau associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This work aimed to evaluate optimal timing for standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) measures with [F-18]THK5317 and automated generation of SUVR-1 and relative cerebral blood flow (R-1) parametric images. Nine AD patients and nine controls underwent 90 min [F-18]THK5317 scans. SUVR-1 was calculated at transient equilibrium (TE) and for seven different 20 min intervals and compared with distribution volume ratio (DVR; reference Logan). Cerebellar grey matter (MRI) was used as reference region. A supervised cluster analysis (SVCA) method was implemented to automatically generate a reference region, directly from the dynamic PET volume without the need of a structural MRI scan, for computation of SUVR-1 and R-1 images for a scan duration matching the optimal timing. TE was reached first in putamen, frontal- and parietal cortex at 22 +/- 4 min for AD patients and in putamen at 20 +/- 0 min in controls. Over all regions and subjects, SUVR20-40-1 correlated best with DVR-1, R-2 = 0.97. High correlation was found between values generated using MRI- and SVCA-based reference (R-2 = 0.93 for SUVR20-40-1; R-2 = 0.94 for R-1). SUVR20-40 allows for accurate semi-quantitative assessment of tau pathology and SVCA may be used to obtain a reference region for calculation of both SUVR-1 and R-1 with 40 min scan duration.
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5.
  • Leuzy, Antoine, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical impact of [18F]flutemetamol PET among memory clinic patients with an unclear diagnosis.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 46:6, s. 1276-1286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of amyloid PET with [18F]flutemetamol on diagnosis and treatment management in a cohort of patients attending a tertiary memory clinic in whom, despite extensive cognitive assessment including neuropsychological testing, structural imaging, CSF biomarker analysis and in some cases [18F]FDG PET, the diagnosis remained unclear.METHODS: The study population consisted of 207 patients with a clinical diagnosis prior to [18F]flutemetamol PET including mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 131), Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 41), non-AD (n = 10), dementia not otherwise specified (dementia NOS; n = 20) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD; n = 5).RESULTS: Amyloid positivity was found in 53% of MCI, 68% of AD, 20% of non-AD, 20% of dementia NOS, and 60% of SCD patients. [18F]Flutemetamol PET led, overall, to a change in diagnosis in 92 of the 207 patients (44%). A high percentage of patients with a change in diagnosis was observed in the MCI group (n = 67, 51%) and in the dementia NOS group (n = 11; 55%), followed by the non-AD and AD (30% and 20%, respectively). A significant increase in cholinesterase inhibitor treatment was observed after [18F]flutemetamol PET (+218%, 34 patients before and 108 patients after).CONCLUSION: The present study lends support to the clinical value of amyloid PET in patients with an uncertain diagnosis in the tertiary memory clinic setting.
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6.
  • Leuzy, Antoine, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal uncoupling of cerebral perfusion, glucose metabolism, and tau deposition in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 14:5, s. 652-663
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Cross-sectional findings using the tau tracer [18F]THK5317 (THK5317) have shown that [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography data can be approximated using perfusion measures (early-frame standardized uptake value ratio; ratio of tracer delivery in target to reference regions). In this way, a single positron emission tomography study can provide both functional and molecular information.METHODS: We included 16 patients with Alzheimer's disease who completed follow-up THK5317 and FDG studies 17 months after baseline investigations. Linear mixed-effects models and annual percentage change maps were used to examine longitudinal change.RESULTS: Limited spatial overlap was observed between areas showing declines in THK5317 perfusion measures and FDG. Minimal overlap was seen between areas showing functional change and those showing increased retention of THK5317.DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest a spatiotemporal offset between functional changes and tau pathology and a partial uncoupling between perfusion and metabolism, possibly as a function of Alzheimer's disease severity.
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7.
  • Leuzy, Antoine, et al. (författare)
  • Pittsburgh compound B imaging and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β in a multicentre European memory clinic study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Brain : a journal of neurology. - 1460-2156. ; 139:Pt 9, s. 2540-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between data on cerebral amyloidosis, derived using Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography and (i) multi-laboratory INNOTEST enzyme linked immunosorbent assay derived cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-β42; (ii) centrally measured cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 using a Meso Scale Discovery enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; and (iii) cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 centrally measured using an antibody-independent mass spectrometry-based reference method. Moreover, we examined the hypothesis that discordance between amyloid biomarker measurements may be due to interindividual differences in total amyloid-β production, by using the ratio of amyloid-β42 to amyloid-β40 Our study population consisted of 243 subjects from seven centres belonging to the Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Initiative, and included subjects with normal cognition and patients with mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. All had Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography data, cerebrospinal fluid INNOTEST amyloid-β42 values, and cerebrospinal fluid samples available for reanalysis. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were reanalysed (amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β40) using Meso Scale Discovery electrochemiluminescence enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technology, and a novel, antibody-independent, mass spectrometry reference method. Pittsburgh compound B standardized uptake value ratio results were scaled using the Centiloid method. Concordance between Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure findings and Pittsburgh compound B was high in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, while more variable results were observed for cognitively normal and non-Alzheimer's disease groups. Agreement between Pittsburgh compound B classification and Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure findings was further improved when using amyloid-β42/40 Agreement between Pittsburgh compound B visual ratings and Centiloids was near complete. Despite improved agreement between Pittsburgh compound B and centrally analysed cerebrospinal fluid, a minority of subjects showed discordant findings. While future studies are needed, our results suggest that amyloid biomarker results may not be interchangeable in some individuals.
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8.
  • Leuzy, Antoine, et al. (författare)
  • Tau PET imaging in neurodegenerative tauopathies-still a challenge
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 24:8, s. 1112-1134
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The accumulation of pathological misfolded tau is a feature common to a collective of neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies, of which Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common. Related tauopathies include progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal syndrome (CBS), Down's syndrome (DS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Investigation of the role of tau pathology in the onset and progression of these disorders is now possible due the recent advent of tau-specific ligands for use with positron emission tomography (PET), including first-(e.g., [F-18] THK5317, [F-18] THK5351, [F-18] AV1451, and [C-11] PBB3) and second-generation compounds [namely [F-18] MK-6240, [F-18] RO-948 (previously referred to as [F-18] RO69558948), [F-18] PI-2620, [F-18] GTP1, [F-18] PM-PBB3, and [F-18] JNJ64349311 ([F-18] JNJ311) and its derivative [F-18] JNJ-067)]. In this review we describe and discuss findings from in vitro and in vivo studies using both initial and new tau ligands, including their relation to biomarkers for amyloid-beta and neurodegeneration, and cognitive findings. Lastly, methodological considerations for the quantification of in vivo ligand binding are addressed, along with potential future applications of tau PET, including therapeutic trials.
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9.
  • Lilja, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Spatial normalization of 18F-Flutemetamol PET images using an adaptive principal-component template
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Medicine. - 0161-5505 .- 1535-5667. ; 60:2, s. 285-291
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Though currently approved for visual assessment only, there is evidence to suggest that quantification of amyloid-β (Aβ) PET images may reduce interreader variability and aid in the monitoring of treatment effects in clinical trials. Quantification typically involves a regional atlas in standard space, requiring PET images to be spatially normalized. Different uptake patterns in Aβ-positive and Aβ-negative subjects, however, make spatial normalization challenging. In this study, we proposed a method to spatially normalize 18F-flutemetamol images using a synthetic template based on principal-component images to overcome these challenges.Methods: 18F-flutemetamol PET and corresponding MR images from a phase II trial (n = 70), including subjects ranging from Aβ-negative to Aβ-positive, were spatially normalized to standard space using an MR-driven registration method (SPM12). 18F-flutemetamol images were then intensity-normalized using the pons as a reference region. Principal-component images were calculated from the intensity-normalized images. A linear combination of the first 2 principal-component images was then used to model a synthetic template spanning the whole range from Aβ-negative to Aβ-positive. The synthetic template was then incorporated into our registration method, by which the optimal template was calculated as part of the registration process, providing a PET-only–driven registration method. Evaluation of the method was done in 2 steps. First, coregistered gray matter masks generated using SPM12 were spatially normalized using the PET- and MR-driven methods, respectively. The spatially normalized gray matter masks were then visually inspected and quantified. Second, to quantitatively compare the 2 registration methods, additional data from an ongoing study were spatially normalized using both methods, with correlation analysis done on the resulting cortical SUV ratios.Results: All scans were successfully spatially normalized using the proposed method with no manual adjustments performed. Both visual and quantitative comparison between the PET- and MR-driven methods showed high agreement in cortical regions. 18F-flutemetamol quantification showed strong agreement between the SUV ratios for the PET- and MR-driven methods (R2 = 0.996; pons reference region).Conclusion: The principal-component template registration method allows for robust and accurate registration of 18F-flutemetamol images to a standardized template space, without the need for an MR image.
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10.
  • Murugan, N. Arul, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-interaction of tau PET tracers with monoamine oxidase B : evidence from in silico modelling and in vivo imaging
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : Springer. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 46:6, s. 1369-1382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposeSeveral tracers have been designed for tracking the abnormal accumulation of tau pathology in vivo. Recently, concerns have been raised about the sources of off-target binding for these tracers; inconclusive data propose binding for some tracers to monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).MethodsMolecular docking and dynamics simulations were used to estimate the affinity and free energy for the binding of several tau tracers (FDDNP, THK523, THK5105, THK5317, THK5351, T807 [aka AV-1451, flortaucipir], T808, PBB3, RO-948, MK-6240, JNJ-311 and PI-2620) to MAO-B. These values were then compared with those for safinamide (MAO-B inhibitor). PET imaging was used with the tau tracer [F-18]THK5317 and the MAO-B tracer [C-11]DED in five patients with Alzheimer's disease to investigate the MAO-B binding component of this first generation tau tracer in vivo.ResultsThe computational modelling studies identified a binding site for all the tau tracers on MAO-B; this was the same site as that for safinamide. The binding affinity and free energy of binding for the tau tracers to MAO-B was substantial and in a similar range to those for safinamide. The most recently developed tau tracers MK-6240, JNJ-311 and PI-2620 appeared, in silico, to have the lowest relative affinity for MAO-B. The in vivo investigations found that the regional distribution of binding for [F-18]THK5317 was different from that for [C-11]DED, although areas of suspected off-target [F-18]THK5317 binding were detected. The binding relationship between [F-18]THK5317 and [C-11]DED depended on the availability of the MAO-B enzyme.ConclusionsThe developed tau tracers show in silico and in vivo evidence of cross-interaction with MAO-B; the MAO-B component of the tracer binding was dependent on the regional concentration of the enzyme.
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