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Sökning: WFRF:(Chouinard S)

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  • Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich, et al. (författare)
  • The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1049-8931 .- 1557-0657. ; 23, s. 28-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective-longitudinal studies. This model provides a conceptual framework to identify how individual vulnerabilities interact with environment over time, and promote critical behaviours that might act as proximal risk factors for ill-health and mental disorders. Within the models framework, such improved knowledge is also expected to better delineate targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions that prevent further escalation in early stages before the full disorder and further complications thereof develop. In contrast to conventional personalized medicine that typically targets individual (genetic) variation of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the Science of Behaviour Change, carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well as mental disorders.
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  • Fu, Zhongjie, et al. (författare)
  • Photoreceptor glucose metabolism determines normal retinal vascular growth
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: EMBO Molecular Medicine. - : Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1757-4676 .- 1757-4684. ; 10:1, s. 76-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The neural cells and factors determining normal vascular growth are not well defined even though vision-threatening neovessel growth, a major cause of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (and diabetic retinopathy), is driven by delayed normal vascular growth. We here examined whether hyperglycemia and low adiponectin (APN) levels delayed normal retinal vascularization, driven primarily by dysregulated photoreceptor metabolism. In premature infants, low APN levels correlated with hyperglycemia and delayed retinal vascular formation. Experimentally in a neonatal mouse model of postnatal hyperglycemia modeling early ROP, hyperglycemia caused photoreceptor dysfunction and delayed neurovascular maturation associated with changes in the APN pathway; recombinant mouse APN or APN receptor agonist AdipoRon treatment normalized vascular growth. APN deficiency decreased retinal mitochondrial metabolic enzyme levels particularly in photoreceptors, suppressed retinal vascular development, and decreased photoreceptor platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgfb). APN pathway activation reversed these effects. Blockade of mitochondrial respiration abolished AdipoRon-induced Pdgfb increase in photoreceptors. Photoreceptor knockdown of Pdgfb delayed retinal vascular formation. Stimulation of the APN pathway might prevent hyperglycemia-associated retinal abnormalities and suppress phase I ROP in premature infants.
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  • Swanson, Charlotte, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • Sex steroid levels and cortical bone size in young men are associated with a uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 polymorphism (H268Y).
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 92:9, s. 3697-704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Sex steroids are involved in the regulation of pubertal cortical bone expansion in males. In vitro studies have indicated that the enzyme uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 has the capacity to glucuronidate sex steroids and their metabolites. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the impact of the H(268)Y polymorphism in the UGT2B7 gene on interindividual variation of serum levels of sex steroids and cortical bone dimensions. PARTICIPANTS: The population-based cohort Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants study consists of 1068 young adult Swedish men (age 18.9 yr). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of sex steroids and the three major glucuronidated androgen metabolites, androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol-17glucuronide, androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol-3glucuronide, and androsterone-glucuronide, were analyzed. Cortical and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density and cortical bone size were measured by peripheral quantitative computer tomography. RESULTS: Serum levels of testosterone (YY 9% over HH; P < 0.01), dihydrotestosterone (YY 10% over HH; P < 0.01), and estradiol (YY 8% over HH; P < 0.01) were associated with the UGT2B7 H(268)Y polymorphism. The polymorphism was associated with androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol-17glucuronide and androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol-3glucuronide (P < 0.01), but not with androsterone-glucuronide serum levels. In addition, the UGT2B7 H(268)Y polymorphism was an independent predictor of cortical bone size, reflected by periosteal circumference and cortical moment of inertia (P < 0.01), in both the weight-bearing tibia and nonweight-bearing radius. CONCLUSIONS: The UGT2B7 H(268)Y polymorphism is independently associated with cortical bone size and serum sex steroid levels in young adult men. Subjects homozygous for the Y allele had higher serum testosterone and larger cortical bone size than subjects homozygous for the H allele. However, the underlying mechanism behind these associations is unknown and has to be studied further.
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  • Bader, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of proliferative and mature beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 535:7612, s. 430-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin-dependent diabetes is a complex multifactorial disorder characterized by loss or dysfunction of beta-cells. Pancreatic beta-cells differ in size, glucose responsiveness, insulin secretion and precursor cell potential(1-5); understanding the mechanisms that underlie this functional heterogeneity might make it possible to develop new regenerative approaches. Here we show that Fltp (also known as Flattop and Cfap126), a Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) effector and reporter gene(6), acts as a marker gene that subdivides endocrine cells into two subpopulations and distinguishes proliferation-competent from mature beta-cells with distinct molecular, physiological and ultrastructural features. Genetic lineage tracing revealed that endocrine subpopulations from Fltp-negative and -positive lineages react differently to physiological and pathological changes. The expression of Fltp increases when endocrine cells cluster together to form polarized and mature 3D islet mini-organs(7-9). We show that 3D architecture and Wnt/PCP ligands are sufficient to trigger beta-cell maturation. By contrast, the Wnt/PCP effector Fltp is not necessary for beta-cell development, proliferation or maturation. We conclude that 3D architecture and Wnt/PCP signalling underlie functional beta-cell heterogeneity and induce beta-cell maturation. The identification of Fltp as a marker for endocrine subpopulations sheds light on the molecular underpinnings of islet cell heterogeneity and plasticity and might enable targeting of endocrine subpopulations for the regeneration of functional beta-cell mass in diabetic patients.
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