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Sökning: WFRF:(Colditz Graham A.)

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1.
  • Wang, Zhaoming, et al. (författare)
  • Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 23:24, s. 6616-6633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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2.
  • Cho, E, et al. (författare)
  • Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer : A pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Loma Linda Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Sch Med, Loma Linda, CA USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. Harvard Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY USA. TNO, Nutr & Food Res Inst, Dept Epidemiol, Zeist, Netherlands. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, Helsinki, Finland. Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Canc Prevent Res Program, Seattle, WA USA. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. Natl Inst Environm Hlth Sci, Epidemiol Branch, Res Triangle Pk, NC USA. NYU, Dept Obstet Gynecol, Sch Med, New York, NY USA. Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. NYU, Sch Med, Nelson Inst Environm Med & Kaplan Canc Ctr, New York, NY USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 96:13, s. 1015-1022
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Studies in animals have suggested that calcium may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. However, results from epidemiologic studies of intake of calcium or dairy foods and colorectal cancer risk have been inconclusive. Methods: We pooled the primary data from 10 cohort studies in five countries that assessed usual dietary intake by using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. For most studies, follow-up was extended beyond that in the original publication. The studies included 534 536 individuals, among whom 4992 incident cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed between 6 and 16 years of follow-up. Pooled multivariable relative risks for categories of milk intake and quintiles of calcium intake and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Milk intake was related to a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Compared with the lowest category of intake (<70 g/day), relative risks of colorectal cancer for increasing categories (70-174, 175-249, and greater than or equal to250 g/day) of milk intake were 0.94 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.02), 0.88 (95% CI = 0.81 to 0.96), and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94), respectively (P-trend<.001). Calcium intake was also inversely related to the risk of colorectal cancer. The relative risk for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.78 to 0.95; P-trend = .02) for dietary calcium and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.69 to 0.88; P-trend<.001) for total calcium (combining dietary and supplemental sources). These results were consistent across studies and sex. The inverse association for milk was limited to cancers of the distal colon (P-trend<.001) and rectum (P-trend = .02). Conclusion: Higher consumption of milk and calcium is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.
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4.
  • Cho, Eunyoung, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer : a pooled analysis of 8 cohort studies
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Annals of Internal Medicine. - 0003-4819 .- 1539-3704. ; 140:8, s. 603-613
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have generally reported positive associations between alcohol consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. However, findings related to specific alcoholic beverages or different anatomic sites in the large bowel have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of total alcohol intake and intake from specific beverages to the incidence of colorectal cancer and to evaluate whether other potential risk factors modify the association. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of primary data from 8 cohort studies in 5 countries. SETTING: North America and Europe. PARTICIPANTS: 489,979 women and men with no history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer at baseline. MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol intake was assessed in each study at baseline by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: During a maximum of 6 to 16 years of follow-up across the studies, 4687 cases of colorectal cancer were documented. In categorical analyses, increased risk for colorectal cancer was limited to persons with an alcohol intake of 30 g/d or greater (approximately > or =2 drinks/d), a consumption level reported by 4% of women and 13% of men. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled multivariate relative risks were 1.16 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.36) for persons who consumed 30 to less than 45 g/d and 1.41 (CI, 1.16 to 1.72) for those who consumed 45 g/d or greater. No significant heterogeneity by study or sex was observed. The association was evident for cancer of the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum. No clear difference in relative risks was found among specific alcoholic beverages. LIMITATIONS: The study included only one measure of alcohol consumption at baseline and could not investigate lifetime alcohol consumption, alcohol consumption at younger ages, or changes in alcohol consumption during follow-up. It also could not examine drinking patterns or duration of alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: A single determination of alcohol intake correlated with a modest relative elevation in colorectal cancer rate, mainly at the highest levels of alcohol intake.
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5.
  • Kim, Dong-Hyun, et al. (författare)
  • Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : SPRINGER. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 21:11, s. 1919-1930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of folate intake and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. We examined the relation with colon cancer risk in a series of 13 prospective studies. Study- and sex-specific relative risks (RRs) were estimated from the primary data using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 725,134 participants, 5,720 incident colon cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. The pooled multivariate RRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.92 (95% CI 0.84-1.00, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.85) for dietary folate and 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.95, p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.42) for total folate. Results for total folate intake were similar in analyses using absolute intake cutpoints (pooled multivariate RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.98, comparing a parts per thousand yen560 mcg/days vs. < 240 mcg/days, p-value, test for trend = 0.009). When analyzed as a continuous variable, a 2% risk reduction (95% CI 0-3%) was estimated for every 100 mu g/day increase in total folate intake. These data support the hypothesis that higher folate intake is modestly associated with reduced risk of colon cancer.
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6.
  • Mannisto, Satu, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Promot & Chron Dis Prevent, Helsinki 00300, Finland. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Maastricht Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Maastricht, Netherlands. Mayo Clin, Coll Med, Rochester, MN USA. SUNY Buffalo, Univ Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. Dana Farber Canc Inst, Boston, MA 02115 USA. TNO Qual Life, Zeist, Netherlands. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 165:3, s. 246-255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data from 11 cohort studies carried out in North America and Europe. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline in each study. During 6-20 years of follow-up between 1980 and 2003, 7,885 incident cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed among 702,647 participants. The authors calculated study-specific multivariate relative risks and then combined them using a random-effects model. In general, intakes of specific carotenoids were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The pooled multivariate relative risks of colorectal cancer comparing the highest quintile of intake with the lowest ranged from 0.92 for lutein + zeaxanthin to 1.04 for lycopene; only for lutein + zeaxanthin intake was the result borderline statistically significant (95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.00). The associations observed were generally similar across studies, for both sexes, and for colon cancer and rectal cancer. These pooled data did not suggest that carotenoids play an important role in the etiology of colorectal cancer.
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7.
  • Teras, Lauren R., et al. (författare)
  • Body size and multiple myeloma mortality : a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 0007-1048 .- 1365-2141. ; 166:5, s. 667-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare but highly fatal malignancy. High body weight is associated with this cancer, but several questions remain regarding the aetiological relevance of timing and location of body weight. To address these questions, we conducted a pooled analysis of MM mortality using 1.5 million participants (including 1388 MM deaths) from 20 prospective cohorts in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. Proportional hazards regression was used to calculate pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Associations with elevated MM mortality were observed for higher early-adult body mass index (BMI; HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09-1.35 per 5 kg/m(2)) and for higher cohort-entry BMI (HR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.16 per 5 kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10 per 5 cm). In analyses of the joint effect of young adult and baseline BMI, women who were the heaviest, both in early adulthood (BMI 25+) and at cohort entry (BMI 30+) were at greater risk compared to those with BMI 18.5 = 25 at both time points (HR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.33-2.86) but there was no significant association in men. Waist-to-hip ratio and height were not associated with MM mortality. These observations suggest that overall, and possibly also central, obesity influence myeloma mortality, and women have the highest risk of death from this cancer if they remain heavy throughout adulthood.
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8.
  • Smith-Warner, Stephanie A., et al. (författare)
  • Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies - The pooling project of prospective studies of diet and cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. NCI, Nutr Epidemiol Branch, Bethesda, MD USA. Loma Linda Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA 92350 USA. Univ So Calif, Dept Prevent Med, Los Angeles, CA USA. Univ So Calif, Norris Comprehens Canc Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA. NCI, Epidemiol Unit, Milan, Italy. Maastricht Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY USA. TNO Qual Life, Dept Epidemiol, Zeist, Netherlands. No Calif Canc Ctr, Fremont, CA USA. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Bethesda, MD USA. Amer Canc Soc, Epidemiol & Surveilliance Res, Atlanta, GA USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY USA. NYU, Sch Med, Dept Environm Med, New York, NY USA. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, Helsinki, Finland. Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 163:11, s. 1053-1064
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within the ongoing Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer, begun in 1991. In the Pooling Project, the primary data from prospective cohort studies meeting prespecified inclusion criteria are analyzed using standardized criteria for modeling of exposure, confounding, and outcome variables. In addition to evaluating main exposure-disease associations, analyses are also conducted to evaluate whether exposure-disease associations are modified by other dietary and nondietary factors or vary among population subgroups or particular cancer subtypes. Study-specific relative risks are calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random- or mixed-effects model. The study-specific estimates are weighted by the inverse of their variances in forming summary estimates. Most of the methods used in the Pooling Project may be adapted for examining associations with dietary and nondietary factors in pooled analyses of case-control studies or case-control and cohort studies combined.
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10.
  • Cox, David G., et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive analysis of the androgen receptor gene and risk of breast cancer: results from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-5411. ; 8:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Androgens have been hypothesised to influence risk of breast cancer through several possible mechanisms, including their conversion to estradiol or their binding to the oestrogen receptor and/ or androgen receptor ( AR) in the breast. Here, we report on the results of a large and comprehensive study of the association between genetic variation in the AR gene and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium ( BPC3). Methods The underlying genetic variation was determined by first sequencing the coding regions of the AR gene in a panel of 95 advanced breast cancer cases. Second, a dense set of markers from the public database was genotyped in a panel of 349 healthy women. The linkage disequilibrium relationships ( blocks) across the gene were then identified, and haplotypetagging single nucleotide polymorphisms ( htSNPs) were selected to capture the common genetic variation across the locus. The htSNPs were then genotyped in the nested breast cancer cases and controls from the Cancer Prevention Study II, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, Multiethnic Cohort, Nurses' Health Study, and Women's Health Study cohorts ( 5,603 breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls). Results We found no association between any genetic variation ( SNP, haplotype, or the exon 1 CAG repeat) in the AR gene and risk of breast cancer, nor were any statistical interactions with known breast cancer risk factors observed. Conclusion Among postmenopausal Caucasian women, common variants of the AR gene are not associated with risk of breast cancer.
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