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Sökning: WFRF:(Corey L)

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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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  • Locke, Adam E, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 518:7538, s. 197-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.
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  • Jones, Benedict C, et al. (författare)
  • To which world regions does the valence-dominance model of social perception apply?
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Human Behaviour. - : Springer Nature. - 2397-3374. ; 5:1, s. 159-169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over the past 10 years, Oosterhof and Todorov's valence-dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgements of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear whether these findings apply to other regions. We addressed this question by replicating Oosterhof and Todorov's methodology across 11 world regions, 41 countries and 11,570 participants. When we used Oosterhof and Todorov's original analysis strategy, the valence-dominance model generalized across regions. When we used an alternative methodology to allow for correlated dimensions, we observed much less generalization. Collectively, these results suggest that, while the valence-dominance model generalizes very well across regions when dimensions are forced to be orthogonal, regional differences are revealed when we use different extraction methods and correlate and rotate the dimension reduction solution. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The stage 1 protocol for this Registered Report was accepted in principle on 5 November 2018. The protocol, as accepted by the journal, can be found at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7611443.v1 .
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  • Athan, E., et al. (författare)
  • Influence of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration on the outcome of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus left-sided infective endocarditis treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactam antibiotics: a prospective cohort study by the International Collaboration on Endocarditis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Microbiology and Infection. - 1198-743X .- 1469-0691. ; 23, s. 544-549
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Objectives Left-sided methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) endocarditis treated with cloxacillin has a poorer prognosis when the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is ≥1.5 mg/L. We aimed to validate this using the International Collaboration on Endocarditis cohort and to analyse whether specific genetic characteristics were associated with a high vancomycin MIC (≥1.5 mg/L) phenotype. Methods All patients with left-sided MSSA infective endocarditis treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactam antibiotics between 2000 and 2006 with available isolates were included. Vancomycin MIC was determined by Etest as either high (≥1.5 mg/L) or low (<1.5 mg/L). Isolates underwent spa typing to infer clonal complexes and multiplex PCR for identifying virulence genes. Univariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between in-hospital and 1-year mortality, and vancomycin MIC phenotype. Results Sixty-two cases met the inclusion criteria. Vancomycin MIC was low in 28 cases (45%) and high in 34 cases (55%). No significant differences in patient demographic data or characteristics of infection were observed between patients with infective endocarditis due to high and low vancomycin MIC isolates. Isolates with high and low vancomycin MIC had similar distributions of virulence genes and clonal lineages. In-hospital and 1-year mortality did not differ significantly between the two groups (32% (9/28) vs. 27% (9/34), p 0.780; and 43% (12/28) vs. 29% (10/34), p 0.298, for low and high vancomycin MIC respectively). Conclusions In this international cohort of patients with left-sided MSSA endocarditis treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactams, vancomycin MIC phenotype was not associated with patient demographics, clinical outcome or virulence gene repertoire.
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  • Meeter, Lieke H.H., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical value of cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain in semantic dementia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-3050. ; 90:9, s. 997-1004
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by progressive language problems falling within the clinicopathological spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The development of disease-modifying agents may be facilitated by the relative clinical and pathological homogeneity of SD, but we need robust monitoring biomarkers to measure their efficacy. In different FTLD subtypes, neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a promising marker, therefore we investigated the utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NfL in SD. Methods: This large retrospective multicentre study compared cross-sectional CSF NfL levels of 162 patients with SD with 65 controls. CSF NfL levels of patients were correlated with clinical parameters (including survival), neuropsychological test scores and regional grey matter atrophy (including longitudinal data in a subset). Results: CSF NfL levels were significantly higher in patients with SD (median: 2326 pg/mL, IQR: 1628-3593) than in controls (577 (446-766), p<0.001). Higher CSF NfL levels were moderately associated with naming impairment as measured by the Boston Naming Test (rs=-0.32, p=0.002) and with smaller grey matter volume of the parahippocampal gyri (rs=-0.31, p=0.004). However, cross-sectional CSF NfL levels were not associated with progression of grey matter atrophy and did not predict survival. Conclusion: CSF NfL is a promising biomarker in the diagnostic process of SD, although it has limited cross-sectional monitoring or prognostic abilities.
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  • Turtelboom,, et al. (författare)
  • The TESS-Keck Survey. XI. Mass Measurements for Four Transiting Sub-Neptunes Orbiting K Dwarf TOI-1246
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 163:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiplanet systems are valuable arenas for investigating exoplanet architectures and comparing planetary siblings. TOI-1246 is one such system, with a moderately bright K dwarf (V = 11.6, K = 9.9) and four transiting sub-Neptunes identified by TESS with orbital periods of 4.31, 5.90, 18.66, and 37.92 days. We collected 130 radial velocity observations with Keck/HIRES and TNG/HARPS-N to measure planet masses. We refit the 14 sectors of TESS photometry to refine planet radii (2.97 +/- 0.06 R (circle plus), 2.47 +/- 0.08 R (circle plus), 3.46 +/- 0.09 R (circle plus), and 3.72 +/- 0.16 R (circle plus)) and confirm the four planets. We find that TOI-1246 e is substantially more massive than the three inner planets (8.1 +/- 1.1 M (circle plus), 8.8 +/- 1.2 M (circle plus), 5.3 +/- 1.7 M (circle plus), and 14.8 +/- 2.3 M (circle plus)). The two outer planets, TOI-1246 d and TOI-1246 e, lie near to the 2:1 resonance (P (e)/P ( d ) = 2.03) and exhibit transit-timing variations. TOI-1246 is one of the brightest four-planet systems, making it amenable for continued observations. It is one of only five systems with measured masses and radii for all four transiting planets. The planet densities range from 0.70 +/- 0.24 to 3.21 +/- 0.44 g cm(-3), implying a range of bulk and atmospheric compositions. We also report a fifth planet candidate found in the RV data with a minimum mass of 25.6 +/- 3.6 M (circle plus). This planet candidate is exterior to TOI-1246 e, with a candidate period of 93.8 days, and we discuss the implications if it is confirmed to be planetary in nature.
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