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Sökning: WFRF:(Cortese Samuele)

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  • Ahlberg, Rickard, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Associations Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), ADHD Medication and Shorter Height : A Quasi-Experimental and Family-based Study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0890-8567 .- 1527-5418.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and shorter height is unclear. This study examined the risk of shorter height in individuals with ADHD, and the influence of prenatal factors, ADHD medication, psychiatric comorbidity, socioeconomic factors and familial liability.METHOD: We draw on Swedish National Registers for two different study designs. First, height data for 14,268 individuals with ADHD and 71,339 controls were stratified into two groups: 1: Before and 2: After stimulant treatment were introduced in Sweden. Second, we used a family-based design including 833,172 relatives without ADHD with different levels of relatedness to the individuals with ADHD and matched controls.RESULTS: ADHD was associated with shorter height both before (below average height: OR=1.31, 95 % CI=1.22-1.41) and after (below average height: OR=1.21, 95 % CI=1.13-1.31) stimulants for ADHD were introduced in Sweden and was of similar magnitude in both cohorts. The association between ADHD and shorter height attenuated after adjustment for prenatal factors, psychiatric disorders and SES. Relatives of individuals with ADHD had an increased risk of shorter height (below average height in full siblings: OR=1.14, 95 % CI=1.09-1.19; maternal half siblings: OR=1.10, 95 % CI=1.01-1.20; paternal half siblings: OR=1.15, 95 % CI=1.07-1.24, first full cousins: OR=1.10, 95 % CI=1.08-1.12).CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that ADHD is associated with shorter height. On a population level, this association was present both before and after ADHD-medications were available in Sweden. The association between ADHD and height was partly explained by prenatal factors, psychiatric comorbidity, low SES and a shared familial liability for ADHD.
  • Ahlberg, Rickard, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of sleep disorder diagnoses and sleep medication prescriptions in individuals with ADHD across the lifespan : a Swedish nationwide register-based study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: BMJ mental health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2755-9734. ; 26:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Consistent evidence suggests a strong association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and subjectively reported sleep problems. However, the prevalence of clinically ascertained sleep disorder diagnoses and sleep medication prescriptions in individuals with ADHD remains unclear.OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of sleep disorder diagnoses and sleep medication prescriptions in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD.METHODS: We linked Swedish national registers to create a cohort of individuals born 1945-2008. We estimated the absolute and relative risks (using logistic regression models) of different sleep disorder diagnoses and medication prescriptions in individuals with and without ADHD. The analyses were performed across five different age groups: children (5-11 years), adolescents (12-17 years), young adults (18-30 years), middle-aged adults (31-45 years) and older adults (46-60 years).FINDINGS: Among individuals with ADHD (N=145 490, 2.25% of the cohort), 7.5% had a sleep disorder diagnosis and 47.5% had been prescribed sleep medication. Individuals with ADHD, across all age groups, had a statistically significantly increased risk of having any sleep disorder diagnosis (ORrange=6.4-16.1) and any sleep medication prescription (ORrange=12.0-129.4) compared with individuals without ADHD. While rates of sleep disorders were highest in older adults, the relative risks were highest in youth.CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with ADHD have a substantially increased risk of sleep disorder diagnoses and sleep medication prescriptions, from childhood into older adulthood.CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: More clinical efforts are needed to tackle impairing sleep problems in individuals with ADHD via systematic sleep assessment, appropriate diagnosis, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Sleep medication use should be informed by sleep disorder diagnosis.
  • Andersson, Anneli, 1992-, et al. (författare)
  • Research Review : The strength of the genetic overlap between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms - a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 0021-9630 .- 1469-7610. ; 61:11, s. 1173-1183
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Twin studies have established that these co-occurrences are in part due to shared genetic risks. However, the strength of these genetic overlaps and the potential heterogeneity accounted for by type of psychiatric symptoms, age, and methods of assessment remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review to fill this gap.Methods: We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science until March 07, 2019. Genetic correlations (r(g)) were used as effect size measures.Results: A total of 31 independent studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimates showed that the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms were partly explained by shared genetic factors, with a pooled genetic correlation of 0.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.60. The genetic correlations (r(g)) between ADHD and externalizing (r(g) = .49 [0.37-0.61]), internalizing (r(g) = .50 [0.39-0.69]), and neurodevelopmental (r(g) = .56 [0.47-0.66]) symptoms were similar in magnitude. The genetic correlations in childhood and adulthood werer(g) = .53 (0.43-0.63) andr(g) = .51 (0.44-0.56), respectively. For methods of assessment, the genetic correlations were also similar in strength, self-reportsr(g) = .52 (0.47-0.58), other informantsr(g) = .55 (0.41-0.69), and combined ratersr(g) = .50 (0.33-0.65).Conclusions: These findings indicate that the co-occurrence of externalizing, internalizing, and neurodevelopmental disorder symptoms in individuals with ADHD symptoms in part is due to a shared genetic risk.
  • Arango, Celso, et al. (författare)
  • Risk and protective factors for mental disorders beyond genetics: an evidence-based atlas
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: World Psychiatry. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1723-8617 .- 2051-5545. ; 20:3, s. 417-436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decades of research have revealed numerous risk factors for mental disorders beyond genetics, but their consistency and magnitude remain uncer-tain. We conducted a "meta-umbrella" systematic synthesis of umbrella reviews, which are systematic reviews of meta-analyses of individual studies, by searching international databases from inception to January 1, 2021. We included umbrella reviews on non-purely genetic risk or protective factors for any ICD/DSM mental disorders, applying an established classification of the credibility of the evidence: class I (convincing), class II (highly suggestive), class III (suggestive), class IV (weak). Sensitivity analyses were conducted on prospective studies to test for temporality (reverse causation), TRANSD criteria were applied to test transdiagnosticity of factors, and A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) was employed to address the quality of meta-analyses. Fourteen eligible umbrella reviews were retrieved, summarizing 390 meta-analyses and 1,180 associations between putative risk or protective factors and mental disorders. We included 176 class I to III evidence associations, relating to 142 risk/protective factors. The most robust risk factors (class I or II, from prospective designs) were 21. For dementia, they included type 2 diabetes mellitus (risk ratio, RR from 1.54 to 2.28), depression (RR from 1.65 to 1.99) and low frequency of social contacts (RR=1.57). For opioid use disorders, the most robust risk factor was tobacco smoking (odds ratio, OR=3.07). For non-organic psychotic disorders, the most robust risk factors were clinical high risk state for psychosis (OR=9.32), cannabis use (OR=3.90), and childhood adversities (OR=2.80). For depressive disorders, they were widowhood (RR=5.59), sexual dysfunction (OR=2.71), three (OR=1.99) or four-five (OR=2.06) metabolic factors, childhood physical (OR=1.98) and sexual (OR=2.42) abuse, job strain (OR=1.77), obesity (OR=1.35), and sleep disturbances (RR=1.92). For autism spectrum disorder, the most robust risk factor was maternal overweight pre/during pregnancy (RR=1.28). For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), they were maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=1.63), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=1.60), and maternal overweight pre/during pregnancy (OR=1.28). Only one robust protective factor was detected: high physical activity (hazard ratio, HR=0.62) for Alzheimers disease. In all, 32.9% of the associations were of high quality, 48.9% of medium quality, and 18.2% of low quality. Transdiagnostic class I-III risk/protective factors were mostly involved in the early neurodevelopmental period. The evidence-based atlas of key risk and protective factors identified in this study represents a benchmark for advancing clinical characterization and research, and for expanding early intervention and preventive strategies for mental disorders.
  • Arrondo, Gonzalo, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between mental and physical conditions in children and adolescents : an umbrella review
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 0149-7634 .- 1873-7528. ; 137
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We mapped the evidence on the type and strength of associations between a broad range of mental and physical conditions in children and adolescents, by carrying out an umbrella review, i.e., a quantitative synthesis of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We also assessed to which extent the links between mental and physical conditions vary across disorders or, by contrast, are transdiagnostic. Based on a pre-established protocol, we retained 45 studies, encompassing around 12.5 million of participants. In analyses limited to the most rigorous estimates, we found evidence for the following associations: ADHD-asthma, ADHD-obesity, and depression-asthma. A transdiagnostic association was confirmed between asthma and anxiety/ASD/depression/bipolar disorder, between obesity and ADHD/ASD/depression, and between dermatitis and ASD/ADHD. We conclude that obesity and allergic conditions are likely to be associated with mental disorders in children and adolescents. Our results can help clinicians explore potential links between mental and physical conditions in children/adolescent and provide a road map for future studies aimed at shading light on the underlying factors.
  • Chen, Qi, et al. (författare)
  • Shared familial risk factors between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and overweight/obesity : a population-based familial coaggregation study in Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. - Stockholm : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0021-9630 .- 1469-7610. ; 58:6, s. 711-718
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite meta-analytic evidence for the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and overweight/obesity, the mechanisms underlying the association are yet to be fully understood.Methods By linking multiple Swedish national and regional registers, we identified 472,735 index males born during 1973-1992, with information on body weight and height directly measured before they were conscripted for military service. We further identified 523,237 full siblings born during 1973-2002 for the index males. All individuals were followed up from their third birthday to December 31, 2009 for ADHD diagnosis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between overweight/obesity in index males and ADHD in their full siblings.Results: Siblings of index males with overweight/obesity had increased risk for ADHD (overweight: OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05-1.24; obesity: OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.24-1.63), compared with siblings of index males with normal weight. The results were adjusted for birth year of the index male and sex of the sibling. After further adjustment for ADHD status of the index male, the familial coaggregation remained significant (overweight: OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04-1.22; obesity: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.21-1.57). The results were similar across sex of the siblings.Conclusions: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and overweight/obesity share familial risk factors, which are not limited to those causing overweight/obesity through the mediation of ADHD. Future research aiming at identifying family-wide environmental risk factors as well as common pleiotropic genetic variants contributing to both traits is warranted.
  • Cortese, Samuele, et al. (författare)
  • Association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and asthma : a systematic review and meta-analysis and a Swedish population-based study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Lancet psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 2215-0374 .- 2215-0366. ; 5:9, s. 717-726
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several studies have assessed the possible association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and asthma. However, existing evidence is inconclusive as to whether this association remains after controlling for possible important confounders. To fill this knowledge gap, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis, followed by a population-based study.Methods: For the systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Embase Classic, Ovid MEDLINE, and Web of Knowledge databases up to Oct 31, 2017, for observational studies allowing estimation of the association between asthma and ADHD. No restrictions to date, language, or article type were applied. Unpublished data were collected from authors of the identified studies. We extracted unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) from the identified studies and calculated ORs when they were not reported. We assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and study heterogeneity using I (2) statistics. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled ORs. The systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017073368). To address the fact that the ORs obtained in the meta-analysis were adjusted for confounders that inevitably varied across studies, we did a population-based study of individuals in multiple national registers in Sweden. We calculated an unadjusted OR and an OR that was simultaneously adjusted for all confounders identified in a directed acyclic graph based on the studies of asthma and ADHD identified in our systematic review.Findings: We identified 2649 potentially eligible citations, from which we obtained 49 datasets including a total of 210 363 participants with ADHD and 3 115 168 without. The pooled unadjusted OR was 1.66 (95% CI 1.22-2.26; I-2 = 99.47) and the pooled adjusted OR was 1.53 (1.41-1.65; I-2 = 50.76), indicating a significant association between asthma and ADHD. Possible lack of representativeness of the study population was detected with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale in 42 of 49 datasets. In the population-based study, we included 1 575 377 individuals born between Jan 1, 1992, and Dec 31, 2006, of whom 259 253 (16.5%) had asthma and 57 957 (3.7%) had ADHD. Asthma was significantly associated with ADHD (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.57-1.63) in the crude model adjusting for sex and year of birth, and this association remained significant after simultaneous adjustment for all covariates (1.45, 1.41-10.48).Interpretation: The combined results of the meta-analysis and the population-based study support a significant association between asthma and ADHD, which remained even after simultaneously controlling for several possible confounders in the population-based study. Awareness of this association might help to reduce delay in the diagnosis of both ADHD and asthma.
  • Cortese, Samuele, et al. (författare)
  • Association between mental disorders and somatic conditions : protocol for an umbrella review
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Evidence-Based Mental Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1362-0347 .- 1468-960X. ; 23:4, s. 135-139
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Although several systematic reviews (SRs)/meta-analyses (MAs) on the association between specific mental disorders and specific somatic conditions are available, an overarching evidence synthesis across mental disorders and somatic conditions is currently lacking. We will conduct an umbrella review of SRs/MAs to test: 1) the strength of the association between individual mental disorders and individual somatic conditions in children/adolescents and adults; 2) to which extent associations are specific to individual mental and somatic conditions .METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search a broad set of electronic databases and contact study authors. We will include SRs with MA or SRs reporting the effect size from individual studies on the association between a number of somatic and mental conditions (as per the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision). We will follow an algorithm to select only one SR or MA when more than one are available on the same association. We will rate the quality of included SRs/MAs using the AMSTAR-2 tool. We will assess to which extent mental disorders are selectively associated with specific somatic conditions or if there are transdiagnostic, across-spectra or diagnostic spectrum-specific associations between mental disorders and somatic conditions based on the Transparent, Reporting, Appraising, Numerating, Showing (TRANSD) recommendations.DISCUSSION: The present umbrella review will shed light on the association between mental health disorders and somatic conditions, providing useful data for the care of patients with mental health disorders, in particular for early detection and intervention. This work might also add insight to the pathophysiology of mental health conditions, and contribute to the current debate on the value of a transdiagnostic approach in psychiatry.
  • Cortese, Samuele, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence, prevalence, and global burden of ADHD from 1990 to 2019 across 204 countries : data, with critical re-analysis, from the Global Burden of Disease study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data on incidence, prevalence and burden of ADHD are crucial for clinicians, patients, and stakeholders. We present the incidence, prevalence, and burden of ADHD globally and across countries from 1990 to 2019 from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. We also: (1) calculated the ADHD prevalence based on data actually collected as opposed to the prevalence estimated by the GBD with data imputation for countries without prevalence data; (2) discussed the GBD estimated ADHD burden in the light of recent meta-analytic evidence on ADHD-related mortality. In 2019, GBD estimated global age-standardized incidence and prevalence of ADHD across the lifespan at 0.061% (95%UI = 0.040-0.087) and 1.13% (95%UI = 0.831-1.494), respectively. ADHD accounted for 0.8% of the global mental disorder DALYs, with mortality set at zero by the GBD. From 1990 to 2019 there was a decrease of -8.75% in the global age-standardized prevalence and of -4.77% in the global age-standardized incidence. The largest increase in incidence, prevalence, and burden from 1990 to 2019 was observed in the USA; the largest decrease occurred in Finland. Incidence, prevalence, and DALYs remained approximately 2.5 times higher in males than females from 1990 to 2019. Incidence peaked at age 5-9 years, and prevalence and DALYs at age 10-14 years. Our re-analysis of data prior to 2013 showed a prevalence in children/adolescents two-fold higher (5.41%, 95% CI: 4.67-6.15%) compared to the corresponding GBD estimated prevalence (2.68%, 1.83-3.72%), with no significant differences between low- and middle- and high-income countries. We also found meta-analytic evidence of significantly increased ADHD-related mortality due to unnatural causes. While it provides the most detailed evidence on temporal trends, as well as on geographic and sex variations in incidence, prevalence, and burden of ADHD, the GBD may have underestimated the ADHD prevalence and burden. Given the influence of the GBD on research and policies, methodological issues should be addressed in its future editions.
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