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Sökning: WFRF:(Coulter T)

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  • Bryant, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Emergence and spread of a human-transmissible multidrug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacterium
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 354:6313, s. 751-757
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lung infections with Mycobacterium abscessus, a species of multidrug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacteria, are emerging as an important global threat to individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), in whom M. abscessus accelerates inflammatory lung damage, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Previously, M. abscessus was thought to be independently acquired by susceptible individuals from the environment. However, using whole-genome analysis of a global collection of clinical isolates, we show that the majority of M. abscessus infections are acquired through transmission, potentially via fomites and aerosols, of recently emerged dominant circulating clones that have spread globally. We demonstrate that these clones are associated with worse clinical outcomes, show increased virulence in cell-based and mouse infection models, and thus represent an urgent international infection challenge.
  • Tartaglia, L., et al. (författare)
  • The Early Detection and Follow-up of the Highly Obscured Type II Supernova 2016ija/DLT16am
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 853:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present our analysis of the Type II supernova DLT16am (SN 2016ija). The object was discovered during the ongoing D < 40 Mpc (DLT40) one-day cadence supernova search at r similar to 20.1 mag in the edge-on nearby (D = 20.0 +/- 4.0 Mpc) galaxy NGC 1532. The subsequent prompt and high-cadenced spectroscopic and photometric follow-up revealed a highly extinguished transient, with E(B - V) = 1.95 +/- 0.15 mag, consistent with a standard extinction law with R-V = 3.1 and a bright (M-V = -18.48 +/- 0.77 mag) absolute peak magnitude. A comparison of the photometric features with those of large samples of SNe II reveals a fast rise for the derived luminosity and a relatively short plateau phase, with a slope of S-50V = 0.84 +/- 0.04 mag/50 days, consistent with the photometric properties typical of those of fast-declining SNe II. Despite the large uncertainties on the distance and the extinction in the direction of DLT16am, the measured photospheric expansion velocity and the derived absolute V-band magnitude at similar to 50 days after the explosion match the existing luminosity-velocity relation for SNe II.
  • Fridlund, M., et al. (författare)
  • The Search for Worlds Like Our Own
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrobiology. - 1531-1074. ; 10:1, s. 5-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The direct detection of Earth-like exoplanets orbiting nearby stars and the characterization of such planets particularly, their evolution, their atmospheres, and their ability to host life-constitute a significant problem. The quest for other worlds as abodes of life has been one of mankind's great questions for several millennia. For instance, as stated by Epicurus similar to 300 BC: "Other worlds, with plants and other living things, some of them similar and some of them different from ours, must exist.'' Demokritos from Abdera (460-370 BC), the man who invented the concept of indivisible small parts-atoms-also held the belief that other worlds exist around the stars and that some of these worlds may be inhabited by life-forms. The idea of the plurality of worlds and of life on them has since been held by scientists like Johannes Kepler and William Herschel, among many others. Here, one must also mention Giordano Bruno. Born in 1548, Bruno studied in France and came into contact with the teachings of Nicolas Copernicus. He wrote the book De l'Infinito, Universo e Mondi in 1584, in which he claimed that the Universe was infinite, that it contained an infinite amount of worlds like Earth, and that these worlds were inhabited by intelligent beings. At the time, this was extremely controversial, and eventually Bruno was arrested by the church and burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, as a heretic, for promoting this and other equally confrontational issues (though it is unclear exactly which idea was the one that ultimately brought him to his end). In all the aforementioned cases, the opinions and results were arrived at through reasoning-not by experiment. We have only recently acquired the technological capability to observe planets orbiting stars other than our Sun; acquisition of this capability has been a remarkable feat of our time. We show in this introduction to the Habitability Primer that mankind is at the dawning of an age when, by way of the scientific method and 21(st)-century technology, we will be able to answer this fascinating controversial issue that has persisted for at least 2500 years.
  • van Zuydam, Natalie R., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Predisposition to Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • 2020
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accelerated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).METHODS: To test whether this reflects differential genetic influences on CAD risk in subjects with T2D, we performed a systematic assessment of genetic overlap between CAD and T2D in 66 643 subjects (27 708 with CAD and 24 259 with T2D). Variants showing apparent association with CAD in stratified analyses or evidence of interaction were evaluated in a further 117 787 subjects (16 694 with CAD and 11 537 with T2D).RESULTS: None of the previously characterized CAD loci was found to have specific effects on CAD in T2D individuals, and a genome-wide interaction analysis found no new variants for CAD that could be considered T2D specific. When we considered the overall genetic correlations between CAD and its risk factors, we found no substantial differences in these relationships by T2D background.CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that the genetic architecture of CAD differs in those with T2D compared with those without T2D.
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