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  • Bixby, H., et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
  • Iurilli, M. L. C., et al. (författare)
  • Heterogeneous contributions of change in population distribution of body mass index to change in obesity and underweight NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: eLife. - : ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2050-084X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • From 1985 to 2016, the prevalence of underweight decreased, and that of obesity and severe obesity increased, in most regions, with significant variation in the magnitude of these changes across regions. We investigated how much change in mean body mass index (BMI) explains changes in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, and severe obesity in different regions using data from 2896 population-based studies with 187 million participants. Changes in the prevalence of underweight and total obesity, and to a lesser extent severe obesity, are largely driven by shifts in the distribution of BMI, with smaller contributions from changes in the shape of the distribution. In East and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the underweight tail of the BMI distribution was left behind as the distribution shifted. There is a need for policies that address all forms of malnutrition by making healthy foods accessible and affordable, while restricting unhealthy foods through fiscal and regulatory restrictions.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Observation of J/psi -> gamma eta pi(0)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PHYSICAL REVIEW D. - 2470-0010. ; 94:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first study of the process J/psi -> gamma eta pi(0) using (223.7 +/- 1.4) x 10(6) J/psi events accumulated with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII facility. The branching fraction for J/psi -> gamma eta pi(0) is measured to be B(J/psi -> gamma eta pi(0)) = (2.14 +/- 0.18(stat) +/- 0.25(syst)) x 10(-5). With a Bayesian approach, the upper limits of the branching fractions B(J/psi -> gamma a(0)(980), a(0)(980) -> eta pi(0)) and B(J/psi -> gamma a(2)(1320), a(2)(1320) -> eta pi(0)) are determined to be 2.5 x 10(-6) and 6.6 x 10(-6) at the 95% confidence level, respectively. All of these measurements are given for the first time.
  • Ablikim, M., et al. (författare)
  • Observation of χc2→η′η′ and χc0,2→ηη′
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 96:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using a sample of 448.1×106  ψ(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector in 2009 and 2012, we study the decays χc0,2→η′η′ and ηη′. The decays χc2→η′η′, χc0→ηη′ and χc2→ηη′ are observed for the first time with statistical significances of 9.6σ, 13.4σ and 7.5σ, respectively. The branching fractions are determined to be B(χc0→η′η′)=(2.19±0.03±0.14)×10−3, B(χc2→η′η′)=(4.76±0.56±0.38)×10−5, B(χc0→ηη′)=(8.92±0.84±0.65)×10−5 and B(χc2→ηη′)=(2.27±0.43±0.25)×10−5, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. The precision for the measurement of B(χc0→η′η′) is significantly improved compared to previous measurements. Based on the measured branching fractions, the role played by the doubly and singly Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka disconnected transition amplitudes for χc0,2 decays into pseudoscalar meson pairs can be clarified.
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