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  • Ahearn, Thomas U., et al. (författare)
  • Common variants in breast cancer risk loci predispose to distinct tumor subtypes
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : Springer Nature. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 24:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common breast cancer susceptibility variants. Many of these variants have differential associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, but how these variants relate with other tumor features and intrinsic molecular subtypes is unclear.MethodsAmong 106,571 invasive breast cancer cases and 95,762 controls of European ancestry with data on 173 breast cancer variants identified in previous GWAS, we used novel two-stage polytomous logistic regression models to evaluate variants in relation to multiple tumor features (ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and grade) adjusting for each other, and to intrinsic-like subtypes.ResultsEighty-five of 173 variants were associated with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 5%), most commonly ER and grade, followed by PR and HER2. Models for intrinsic-like subtypes found nearly all of these variants (83 of 85) associated at p < 0.05 with risk for at least one luminal-like subtype, and approximately half (41 of 85) of the variants were associated with risk of at least one non-luminal subtype, including 32 variants associated with triple-negative (TN) disease. Ten variants were associated with risk of all subtypes in different magnitude. Five variants were associated with risk of luminal A-like and TN subtypes in opposite directions.ConclusionThis report demonstrates a high level of complexity in the etiology heterogeneity of breast cancer susceptibility variants and can inform investigations of subtype-specific risk prediction.
  • Barnekow, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • A Swedish Genome-Wide Haplotype Association Analysis Identifies a Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Locus in 8p21.2 and Characterizes Three Loci on Chromosomes 10, 11 and 16
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Cancers. - : MDPI AG. - 2072-6694. ; 14:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The heritability of breast cancer is partly explained but much of the genetic contribution remains to be identified. Haplotypes are often used as markers of ethnicity as they are preserved through generations. We have previously demonstrated that haplotype analysis, in addition to standard SNP association studies, could give novel and more detailed information on genetic cancer susceptibility.Methods: In order to examine the association of a SNP or a haplotype to breast cancer risk, we performed a genome wide haplotype association study, using sliding window analysis of window sizes 1-25 and 50 SNPs, in 3200 Swedish breast cancer cases and 5021 controls.Results: We identified a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus in 8p21.1 (OR 2.08; p 3.92 x 10(-8)), confirmed three known loci in 10q26.13, 11q13.3, 16q12.1-2 and further identified novel subloci within these three loci. Altogether 76 risk SNPs, 3302 risk haplotypes of window size 2-25 and 113 risk haplotypes of window size 50 at p < 5 x 10(-8) on chromosomes 8, 10, 11 and 16 were identified. In the known loci haplotype analysis reached an OR of 1.48 in overall breast cancer and in familial cases OR 1.68.Conclusions: Analyzing haplotypes, rather than single variants, could detect novel susceptibility loci even in small study populations but the method requires a fairly homogenous study population.
  • Baxter, Joseph S., et al. (författare)
  • Functional annotation of the 2q35 breast cancer risk locus implicates a structural variant in influencing activity of a long-range enhancer element
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : CELL PRESS. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 108:7, s. 1190-1203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30-to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 x 10(-31)).
  • Borgquist, Signe, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to insulin and volumetric mammographic density : Observational and genetic associations in the Karma study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-5411. ; 20:1, s. 93-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Long-term insulin exposure has been implicated in breast cancer etiology, but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of insulin therapy with mammographic density (MD) as an intermediate phenotype for breast cancer and to assess associations with long-term elevated circulating insulin levels using a genetic score comprising 18 insulin-associated variants. Methods: We used data from the KARolinska MAmmography (Karma) project, a Swedish mammography screening cohort. Insulin-treated patients with type 1 (T1D, n = 122) and type 2 (T2D, n = 237) diabetes were identified through linkage with the Prescribed Drug Register and age-matched to 1771 women without diabetes. We assessed associations with treatment duration and insulin glargine use, and we further examined MD differences using non-insulin-treated T2D patients as an active comparator. MD was measured using a fully automated volumetric method, and analyses were adjusted for multiple potential confounders. Associations with the insulin genetic score were assessed in 9437 study participants without diabetes. Results: Compared with age-matched women without diabetes, insulin-treated T1D patients had greater percent dense (8.7% vs. 11.4%) and absolute dense volumes (59.7 vs. 64.7 cm3), and a smaller absolute nondense volume (615 vs. 491 cm3). Similar associations were observed for insulin-treated T2D, and estimates were not materially different in analyses comparing insulin-treated T2D patients with T2D patients receiving noninsulin glucose-lowering medication. In both T1D and T2D, the magnitude of the association with the absolute dense volume was highest for long-term insulin therapy (≥ 5 years) and the long-acting insulin analog glargine. No consistent evidence of differential associations by insulin treatment duration or type was found for percent dense and absolute nondense volumes. Genetically predicted insulin levels were positively associated with percent dense and absolute dense volumes, but not with the absolute nondense volume (percentage difference [95% CI] per 1-SD increase in insulin genetic score = 0.8 [0.0; 1.6], 0.9 [0.1; 1.8], and 0.1 [- 0.8; 0.9], respectively). Conclusions: The consistency in direction of association for insulin treatment and the insulin genetic score with the absolute dense volume suggest a causal influence of long-term increased insulin exposure on mammographic dense breast tissue.
  • Brand, Judith S., et al. (författare)
  • Infection-related hospitalizations in breast cancer patients: risk and impact on prognosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infection. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0163-4453. ; 72:6, s. 650-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Infections are a common cause of hospitalization in breast cancer patients. We studied the risk, clinical characteristics and outcomes of infection-related hospitalizations in this patient population. METHODS: A Swedish registry-based study including 8338 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2008, followed prospectively for infection-related hospitalizations until 2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using background rates from the general female population. Associations with clinical characteristics and mortality were analyzed using flexible parametric survival models. RESULTS: In total, 720 patients experienced an infection-related hospitalization during a median follow-up of 4.9 years. Infection rates were highest within the first year of diagnosis (SIR = 5.61, 95% CI; 4.98-6.32), and site-specific risks were most pronounced for sepsis (SIR = 3.14, 95% CI; 2.66-3.71) and skin infections (SIR = 2.80, 95% CI; 2.24-3.50). Older age at diagnosis, comorbidities, markers of tumor aggressiveness, chemotherapy and axillary node dissection were independent predictors of infectious disease risk. Infection-related hospitalizations were also independently associated with overall and breast cancer-specific death. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of breast cancer patients are hospitalized with an infection following diagnosis, which in turn predicts poor prognosis. The risk profile of infection-related hospitalizations is multifactorial, including patient, tumor and treatment-related factors.
  • Brand, Judith S., et al. (författare)
  • Time-dependent risk and predictors of venous thromboembolism in breast cancer patients: a population-based cohort study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0008-543X. ; 123:3, s. 468-475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication of cancer and its treatment. The current study assessed the risk and clinical predictors of VTE in breast cancer patients by time since diagnosis. METHODS: This Swedish population-based study included 8338 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 in the Stockholm-Gotland region with complete follow-up until 2012. Their incidence of VTE was compared with the incidence among 39,013 age-matched reference individuals from the general population. Cox and flexible parametric models were used to examine associations with patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, accounting for time-dependent effects. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7.2 years, 426 breast cancer patients experienced a VTE event (cumulative incidence, 5.1%). The VTE incidence was 3-fold increased (hazard ratio [HR], 3.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87-3.74) in comparison with the incidence in the general population and was highest 6 months after diagnosis (HR, 8.62; 95% CI, 6.56-11.33) with a sustained increase in risk thereafter (HR at 5 years, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.80-2.67). Independent predictors of VTE included the following: older age, being overweight, preexisting VTE, comorbid disease, tumor size > 40 mm, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative status, more than 4 affected lymph nodes, and receipt of chemo- and endocrine therapy. The impact of chemotherapy was limited to early-onset VTE, whereas comorbid disease and PR-negative status were more strongly associated with late-onset events. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the long-term risk of VTE in breast cancer patients and identifies a comprehensive set of clinical risk predictors. Temporal associations with patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics provide insight into the time-dependent etiology of VTE.
  • Byström, Sanna, et al. (författare)
  • Affinity proteomic profiling of plasma for proteins associated to area-based mammographic breast density
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but molecular understanding of how breast density relates to cancer risk is less complete. Studies of proteins in blood plasma, possibly associated with mammographic density, are well-suited as these allow large-scale analyses and might shed light on the association between breast cancer and breast density. Methods: Plasma samples from 1329 women in the Swedish KARMA project, without prior history of breast cancer, were profiled with antibody suspension bead array (SBA) assays. Two sample sets comprising 729 and 600 women were screened by two different SBAs targeting a total number of 357 proteins. Protein targets were selected through searching the literature, for either being related to breast cancer or for being linked to the extracellular matrix. Association between proteins and absolute area-based breast density (AD) was assessed by quantile regression, adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). Results: Plasma profiling revealed linear association between 20 proteins and AD, concordant in the two sets of samples (p < 0.05). Plasma levels of seven proteins were positively associated and 13 proteins negatively associated with AD. For eleven of these proteins evidence for gene expression in breast tissue existed. Among these, ABCC11, TNFRSF10D, F11R and ERRF were positively associated with AD, and SHC1, CFLAR, ACOX2, ITGB6, RASSF1, FANCD2 and IRX5 were negatively associated with AD. Conclusions: Screening proteins in plasma indicates associations between breast density and processes of tissue homeostasis, DNA repair, cancer development and/or progression in breast cancer. Further validation and follow-up studies of the shortlisted protein candidates in independent cohorts will be needed to infer their role in breast density and its progression in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
  • Chen, Ruoqing, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood injury after a parental cancer diagnosis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - Stockholm : eLife Sciences Publications Ltd. - 2050-084X. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A parental cancer diagnosis is psychologically straining for the whole family. We investigated whether a parental cancer diagnosis is associated with a higher-than-expected risk of injury among children by using a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study. Compared to children without parental cancer, children with parental cancer had a higher rate of hospital contact for injury during the first year after parental cancer diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR]=1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.22-1.33), especially when the parent had a comorbid psychiatric disorder after cancer diagnosis (HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.08-1.85). The rate increment declined during the second and third year after parental cancer diagnosis (HR=1.10, 95% CI=1.07-1.14) and became null afterwards (HR=1.01, 95% CI=0.99-1.03). Children with parental cancer also had a higher rate of repeated injuries than the other children (HR=1.13, 95% CI= 1.12-1.15). Given the high rate of injury among children in the general population, our findings may have important public health implications.
  • Chen, Ruoqing, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of parental cancer on IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness in young men
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Epidemiology. - : DOVE Medical Press Ltd.. - 1179-1349 .- 1179-1349. ; 10, s. 593-602
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A parental cancer diagnosis is a stressful life event, potentially leading to increased risks of mental and physical problems among children. This study aimed to investigate the associations of parental cancer with IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness of the affected men during early adulthood.Materials and methods: In this Swedish population-based study, we included 465,249 men born during 1973-1983 who underwent the military conscription examination around the age of 18 years. We identified cancer diagnoses among the parents of these men from the Cancer Register. IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness of the men were assessed at the time of conscription and categorized into three levels: low, moderate, and high (reference category). We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the studied associations. Results: Overall, parental cancer was associated with higher risks of low stress resilience (relative risk ratio [RRR]: 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.15]) and low physical fitness (RRR: 1.12 [95% CI 1.05-1.19]). Stronger associations were observed for parental cancer with a poor expected prognosis (low stress resilience: RRR: 1.59 [95% CI 1.31-1.94]; low physical fitness: RRR: 1.45 [95% CI 1.14-1.85]) and for parental death after cancer diagnosis (low stress resilience: RRR: 1.29 [95% CI 1.16-1.43]; low physical fitness: RRR: 1.40 [95% CI 1.23-1.59]). Although there was no overall association between parental cancer and IQ, parental death after cancer diagnosis was associated with a higher risk of low IQ (RRR: 1.11 [95% CI 1.01-1.24]).Conclusion: Parental cancer, particularly severe and fatal type, is associated with higher risks of low stress resilience and low physical fitness among men during early adulthood. Men who experienced parental death after cancer diagnosis also have a higher risk of low IQ.
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