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1.
  • Algers, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Mixed logit estimation of the value of travel time
  • 1998
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • In this paper we use mixed logit specifications to allow parameters to vary in the population when estimating the value of time for long-distance car travel. Our main conclusion is that the estimated value of time is very sensitive to how the model is specified: we find that it is significantly lower when the coefficients are assumed to be normally distributed in the population, as compared to the traditional case when they are treated as fixed. In our most richly parameterised model, we find a median value of time of 57 SEK per hour, with the major part of the mass of the value of time distribution closely centred around the median value. The corresponding figure when the parameters are treated as fixed is 89 SEK per hour. Furthermore, our finding that the ratio of coefficients in a mixed logit specification differ significantly from the ones in a traditional logit specification is contrary to the results obtained by Brownstone & Train (1996) and Train (1997). Whether the ratios will differ or not depends on the model and the data generating process at hand.
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2.
  • Andersson, Henrik (författare)
  • Immigration and the Neighborhood : Essays on the Causes and Consequences of International Migration
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Essay 1 (with Kristoffer Jutvik): This paper uses quasi-experimental evidence to understand how changes in migration policy affect the number of asylum seekers. We look specifically at a sudden, regulatory change in the Swedish reception of Syrian asylum seekers. The change took place in September 2013, and implied that all Syrian asylum seekers would be granted permanent, instead of temporary residence permits. Using high frequency data and an interrupted time series set-up, we study the extent to which this change caused more Syrian citizens to apply for asylum in Sweden, and how the change affected the distribution of asylum seekers in Europe. Results show that the change in policy almost doubled the number of asylum seekers from Syria within 2013, with a significant jump in numbers already within the first week after the implementation of the policy. While this also decreased the share of asylum seekers to other large recipient countries (Germany), the effects were highly temporary.Essay 2: In this paper I estimate the causal effect of ethnic enclaves on the probability of self-employment. To account for neighborhood selection I make use of a refugee dispersal program. Results indicate that larger ethnic enclaves, measured as the share of self-employed coethnics in the municipality immigrants first arrive into, affect the probability of self-employment positively, while the share of all other coethnics has a negative effect. Results however also indicate that there is a long term economic penalty to being placed with a larger share of self-employed coethnics, an effect which is partly mediated through the choice of self-employment.Essay 3 (with Heléne Berg and Matz Dahlberg): In this paper we investigate the migration behavior of the native population following foreign (refugee) immigration, with a particular focus on examining whether there is any support for an ethnically based migration response. If ethnicity is the mechanism driving the change in natives' migration behavior, our maintained hypothesis is that native-born individuals who are more ethnically similar to arriving refugees should not change their migration behavior to the same extent as native-born individuals with native-born parents (who are ethnically quite different from refugees). Using rich geo-coded register data from Sweden, spanning over 20 consecutive years, we account for possible endogeneity problems  with an improved so-called ``shift-share" instrumental variable approach; in particular, our strategy combines policy-induced initial immigrant settlements with exogenous contemporaneous immigration as captured by refugee shocks. We find no evidence of neither native flight nor native avoidance when studying the full population. We do, however, find native flight among individuals who are expected to be more mobile, and within this group, we find that all natives, irrespective of their parents' foreign background, react similarly to increased immigration. Our results therefore indicate that preferences for ethnically homogeneous neighborhoods may not be the dominant channel inducing flight. Instead our estimates indicate that immigration leads to more socio-economically segregated neighborhoods. This conclusion can have important implications for the ethnically based tipping point literature.Essay 4 (with Matz Dahlberg): In this paper we examine the short-run housing market effects of refugee immigration to Sweden. Given that Sweden is a major refugee receiving country, it constitutes an interesting and important case to study. To deal with the endogeneity resulting from the refugees' location choices, we use an econometric specification that includes neighborhood fixed effects and an instrumental variable that is based on a historical settlement pattern mainly determined by a refugee placement policy. We find that refugee immigration to small neighborhoods has no average effect on changes in housing prices in that neighborhood. We find a positive effect on increased housing supply, measured as the number of objects on sale. The zero effect of immigration on housing prices stands in contrast to the negative results found in earlier studies. We hypothesize that the reason is due to different preferences for homogeneity in Sweden, and/or to institutional features in the Swedish rental sector.
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3.
  • Andersson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Migrating Natives and Foreign Immigration : Is there a Preference for Ethnic Residential Homogeneity?
  • 2018
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • In this paper we investigate the migration behavior of the native population following foreign (refugee) immigration, with a particular focus on examining whether there is support for an ethnically based migration response. If ethnicity is the mechanism driving the change in natives' migration behavior, our maintained hypothesis is that native-born individuals who are ethnically similar to arriving refugees should not change their migration behavior to the same extent as native-born individuals with native-born parents (who are ethnically quite different from refugees). Using rich geo-coded register data from Sweden, spanning over 20 consecutive years, we account for possible endogeneity problems with an improved so-called "shift-share" approach; in particular, our strategy combines policy-induced initial immigrant settlements with exogenous contemporaneous immigration as captured by refugee shocks. We find no evidence of neither native flight nor native avoidance when studying the full population. We do, however, find native flight among individuals who are expected to be more mobile, and within this group, we find that all natives, irrespective of their parents' foreign background, react similarly to increased immigration. Our results therefore indicate that preference for ethnically homogeneous neighborhoods may not be the dominant channel inducing flight. The estimates instead indicate that immigration leads to more socio-economically segregated neighborhoods. This conclusion may have implications for the ethnically based tipping point literature.
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4.
  • Andersson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Migrating natives and foreign immigration : Is there a preference for ethnic residential homogeneity?
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urban Economics. - : Elsevier BV. - 0094-1190 .- 1095-9068. ; 121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We study the migration behavior of the native Swedish population following refugee immigration, with a particular focus on examining whether there is support for an ethnically based migration response. Using rich geo-coded Swedish data, we account for possible endogeneity problems by combining policy-induced initial immigrant settlements with exogenous contemporaneous immigration as captured by refugee shocks. We find the same flight among all natives, irrespective of their parental foreign background. This suggests that ethnic distance to the new immigrants is not the dominant channel causing natives' flight behavior. Instead, refugee immigration seems to lead to more socio-economically segregated neighborhoods.
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5.
  • Andersson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Native Migration Responses to Increased Immigration
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: CESifo DICE Report. - München : ifo Institute. - 1612-0663 .- 1613-6373. ; 15:3, s. 26-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)
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6.
  • Andersson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Polisens lista över utsatta områden minskar efterfrågan på att bo i de utpekade områdena
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt. - : Nationalekonomiska föreningen. - 0345-2646. ; 51:8, s. 53-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Sedan hösten 2015 har polisen publicerat en serie rapporter som listar ett sextiotal bostadsområden i Sverige som "utsatta". Dessa listor har fått stort genomslag såväl i media som i den politiska debatten. I denna artikel presenterar vi resultat som ger stöd åt hypotesen att polisens beslut att peka ut "utsatta områden" har påverkat uppfattningen om de utpekade områdena. Vi påvisar en negativ effekt på bostadspriserna av att bli upptagen på polisens lista, både på kort och längre sikt (inom sex år), vilket vi tolkar som en minskad efterfråga på att bo i dessa områden.
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7.
  • Andersson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Refugee Immigration and the Housing Market
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • In this paper we examine the short-run housing market effects of refugee immigration to Sweden. Given that Sweden is a major refugee receiving country, it constitutes an interesting and important case to study. To deal with the endogeneity resulting from the refugees' location choices, we use an econometric specification that includes neighborhood fixed effects and an instrumental variable that is based on a historical settlement pattern mainly determined by a refugee placement policy. We find that refugee immigration to small neighborhoods has no average effect on changes in housing prices in that neighborhood. We find a positive effect on increased housing supply, measured as the number of objects on sale. The zero effect of immigration on housing prices stands in contrast to the negative results found in earlier studies. We hypothesize that the reason is due to different preferences for homogeneity in Sweden, and/or to institutional features in the Swedish rental sector.
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8.
  • Andersson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Vill Svensson bo med Svensson? : Effekter av flyktinginvandring på svenskföddas flyttbeteende
  • 2018
  • Rapport (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Invandringen till Sverige har gjort att befolkningen både ökat i storlek och fått en förändrad sammansättning. År 2018 är andelen utlandsfödda 18 procent, och under de senare årtiondena har ökningen i denna andel drivits främst av invandring från länder utanför Europa. I denna rapport studerar vi hur den ökade invandringen, och specifikt flyktinginvandringen, påverkat svenskföddas flyttbeteenden. Förutom att undersöka hur flyttbeteenden påverkas, analyserar vi även varför. Vi finner överlag väldigt små effekter på flyttbeteendet; vissa svenskfödda lämnar visserligen sitt grannskap till följd av ökad invandring, men nettoeffekten av ut- och inflyttningen är inte statistiskt skild från noll. Vidare finner vi att i den mån vissa svenskfödda flyttar, är det på grund av den förändrade socioekonomiska sammansättningen som följer av invandringen, snarare än en förändrad etnisk sammansättning. Med andra ord finner vi att ”rik och välutbildad” vill bo med ”rik och välutbildad” snarare än att ”Svensson vill bo med Svensson”.
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9.
  • Ando, Michihito, 1981- (författare)
  • Essays on the Evaluation of Public Policies
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This thesis consists of four self-contained papers.Essay 1: This paper uses the synthetic control (SC) method to examine how the establishment of Nuclear Power Facilities (NPFs) in Japan in the 1970s and 1980s has affected local per capita income levels in the municipalities in which they were located (NPF municipalities). Eight quantitative case studies using the SC method clarify that the effects of NPF establishment on per capita taxable income levels are highly heterogeneous. The estimated effects are often economically meaningful and in some cases huge: the income level was 11% higher on average and 62% higher in one municipality in 2002 when compared with counterfactual units. On the other hand a few of the NPF municipalities have received only weak or negligible effects from NPF establishment. The post-estimation comparisons of employment between the NPF municipalities and the SC units suggest that the size of the direct labor demand shocks and subsequent indirect employment effects on nontradable service sectors have contributed to the increase in per capita income levels.Essay 2: In a regression kink (RK) design with a finite sample, a confounding smooth nonlinear relationship between an assignment variable and an outcome variable around a threshold can be spuriously picked up as a kink and result in a biased estimate. In order to investigate how well RK designs handle such confounding nonlinearity, I firstly implement Monte Carlo simulations and then study the effect of fiscal equalization grants on local expenditure in Japan using an RK design. Results in both the Monte Carlo simulations and the empirical application suggest that RK estimation without covariates can be easily biased, and this problem can be mitigated by adding basic covariates to the regressors. On the other hand, a smaller bandwidth or a higher order polynomial, even a quadratic polynomial, tends to result in imprecise estimates although they may be able to reduce estimation bias. In sum, RK estimation with a confounding nonlinearity often suffers from bias or imprecision and estimates are credible only when relevant covariates are controlled for.Essay 3: This paper investigates the effects of fiscal equalization grants on total expenditure and disaggregated expenditures by exploiting two different formula-based exogenous variations in grants. Examining the institutional settings of the Japanese fiscal equalization scheme and estimating local average grant effects with a regression kink design and an instrumental variable approach, I demonstrate that there exist heterogeneous grant effects for two groups of municipalities with different fiscal conditions. That is, estimated grant effects on total expenditure are approximately one-to-one for municipalities around the threshold of grant eligibility, but much more than one-to-one for municipalities that are heavily dependent on fiscal equalization grants. In addition, grant effects on disaggregated expenditures are dispersed across different expenditure items in the former type of municipality but concentrated on construction expenditures in the latter type. I then discuss that the observed grant effect heterogeneity is a consequence of the institutional settings of the Japanese fiscal equalization scheme.Essay 4 (with Reo Takaku): We evaluate the impact of patient cost sharing on the use of dentures and subjective chewing ability exploiting a sharp reduction in the coinsurance rate, the percentage of costs born by the user, from 30% to 10% at the age of 70 with a regression discontinuity design. Using data from the Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement (JSTAR), we find that the utilization rate of dentures increases from approximately 50% to 63% around the threshold, implying that the extensive margin elasticity of denture usage with respect to the coinsurance rate is about -0.41. In addition, we find this jump is almost entirely due to the change in the rate among women. On the other hand, we do not find a significant improvement in self-reported chewing ability. Our empirical findings are also confirmed by complementary analysis with randomization tests and placebo randomization tests.
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10.
  • Ando, Michihito, et al. (författare)
  • The Risks of Nuclear Disaster and Its Impact on Housing Prices
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Economics Letters. - : Elsevier BV. - 0165-1765 .- 1873-7374. ; 154, s. 13-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using a data set on housing sales transactions we explore the potential effect of the Fukushima disaster on housing prices in Sweden. In contrast to most earlier findings in other countries we do not find any disproportionate effect from the Fukushima disaster on housing prices in vicinity of nuclear power plants in Sweden.
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