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  • Johansson, G., et al. (författare)
  • Improved cortisol exposure-time profile and outcome in patients with adrenal insufficiency : a prospective randomised trial of a novel hydrocortisone dual-release formulation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : The Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 97:2, s. 473-481
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Patients with treated adrenal insufficiency (AI) have increased morbidity and mortality rate. Our goal was to improve outcome by developing a once-daily (OD) oral hydrocortisone dual-release tablet with a more physiological exposure-time cortisol profile.Objective: The aim was to compare pharmacokinetics and metabolic outcome between OD and the same daily dose of thrice-daily (TID) dose of conventional hydrocortisone tablets.Design and Setting: We conducted an open, randomized, two-period, 12-wk crossover multicenter trial with a 24-wk extension at five university hospital centers.Patients: The trial enrolled 64 adults with primary AI; 11 had concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM).Intervention: The same daily dose of hydrocortisone was administered as OD dual-release or TID.Main Outcome Measure: We evaluated cortisol pharmacokinetics.Results: Compared with conventional TID, OD provided a sustained serum cortisol profile 0-4 h after the morning intake and reduced the late afternoon and the 24-h cortisol exposure. The mean weight (difference = -0.7 kg, P = 0.005), systolic blood pressure (difference = -5.5 mm Hg, P = 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (difference: -2.3 mm Hg; P = 0.03), and glycated hemoglobin (absolute difference = -0.1%, P = 0.0006) were all reduced after OD compared with TID at 12 wk. Compared with TID, a reduction in glycated hemoglobin by 0.6% was observed in patients with concomitant DM during OD (P = 0.004).Conclusion: The OD dual-release tablet provided a more circadian-based serum cortisol profile. Reduced body weight, reduced blood pressure, and improved glucose metabolism were observed during OD treatment. In particular, glucose metabolism improved in patients with concomitant DM.
  • Petersson, M., et al. (författare)
  • Natural history and surgical outcome of Rathke's cleft cysts-A study from the Swedish Pituitary Registry
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Endocrinology. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0300-0664 .- 1365-2265. ; 96:1, s. 54-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Rathke's cleft cysts are benign, embryological remnants in the pituitary gland. The majority of them are small and asymptomatic but a few may become large, and cause mass effects, pituitary hormone deficiencies and visual impairment. Recommendations for the follow-up of Rathke's cleft cysts vary since data on the natural history are sparse. Patients and Design Data at diagnosis and at 1, 5 and 10 years for patients with a Rathke's cleft cyst (434 at diagnosis, 317 females) were retrieved from the Swedish Pituitary Registry. Cysts <= 3 mm in diameter were excluded from the study. Measurements Data included demographics, cyst size, pituitary function, visual defects and surgery. Results The mean age at diagnosis was 45 years. In patients with cysts <10 mm in diameter (n = 204) 2.9% had pituitary hormone deficiencies and 2% had visual field impairments. Cyst size did not progress during the 5 years. Cysts with a diameter of >= 10 mm that were not operated (n = 174) decreased in size over the years (p < .01). Pituitary hormone deficiencies and visual impairments were more frequent (18% and 5.7%, respectively) but were stable over time. Transphenoidal surgery was performed in 56 patients of whom 51 underwent surgery before the 1-year follow-up. The mean cyst diameter at diagnosis was 18 mm (range: 930 mm), 36% had pituitary hormone deficiency, 45% had visual field defects and 20% had impaired visual acuity. One year after surgery 60% had no cyst remnants, 50% had a pituitary deficiency, 26% had visual field defects and 12% had impaired visual acuity. No major changes were observed after 5 years. Twelve of the operated patients had a follow-up at 10 years, in eight the cyst remnants or recurrences increased in size over time (p < .05). Conclusions Rathke's cleft cysts with a size less than 10 mm rarely grow and our results indicate that radiological follow-up can be restricted to 5 years. In contrast, progression of postoperative remnants or recurrent cysts is more likely and require long-term follow-up.
  • Dahlqvist, J., et al. (författare)
  • Identification and functional characterization of a novel susceptibility locus for small vessel vasculitis with MPO-ANCA
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Rheumatology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1462-0324 .- 1462-0332.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To identify and characterize genetic loci associated with the risk of developing ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV). Methods Genetic association analyses were performed after Illumina sequencing of 1853 genes and subsequent replication with genotyping of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in a total cohort of 1110 Scandinavian cases with granulomatosis with polyangiitis or microscopic polyangiitis, and 1589 controls. A novel AAV-associated single nucleotide polymorphism was analysed for allele-specific effects on gene expression using luciferase reporter assay. Results PR3-ANCA(+) AAV was significantly associated with two independent loci in the HLA-DPB1/HLA-DPA1 region [rs1042335, P = 6.3 x 10(-61), odds ratio (OR) 0.10; rs9277341, P = 1.5 x 10(-44), OR 0.22] and with rs28929474 in the SERPINA1 gene (P = 2.7 x 10(-10), OR 2.9). MPO-ANCA(+) AAV was significantly associated with the HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2 locus (rs9274619, P = 5.4 x 10(-25), OR 3.7) and with a rare variant in the BACH2 gene (rs78275221, P = 7.9 x 10(-7), OR 3.0), the latter a novel susceptibility locus for MPO-ANCA(+) granulomatosis with polyangiitis/microscopic polyangiitis. The rs78275221-A risk allele reduced luciferase gene expression in endothelial cells, specifically, as compared with the non-risk allele. Conclusion We identified a novel susceptibility locus for MPO-ANCA(+) AAV and propose that the associated variant is of mechanistic importance, exerting a regulatory function on gene expression in specific cell types.
  • Eriksson, D, et al. (författare)
  • Extended exome sequencing identifies BACH2 as a novel major risk locus for Addison's disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 286:6, s. 595-608
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Autoimmune disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Addison's disease, the adrenal glands are targeted by destructive autoimmunity. Despite being the most common cause of primary adrenal failure, little is known about its aetiology.METHODS: To understand the genetic background of Addison's disease, we utilized the extensively characterized patients of the Swedish Addison Registry. We developed an extended exome capture array comprising a selected set of 1853 genes and their potential regulatory elements, for the purpose of sequencing 479 patients with Addison's disease and 1394 controls.RESULTS: We identified BACH2 (rs62408233-A, OR = 2.01 (1.71-2.37), P = 1.66 × 10(-15) , MAF 0.46/0.29 in cases/controls) as a novel gene associated with Addison's disease development. We also confirmed the previously known associations with the HLA complex.CONCLUSION: Whilst BACH2 has been previously reported to associate with organ-specific autoimmune diseases co-inherited with Addison's disease, we have identified BACH2 as a major risk locus in Addison's disease, independent of concomitant autoimmune diseases. Our results may enable future research towards preventive disease treatment.
  • Gerlag, Danielle M, et al. (författare)
  • EULAR recommendations for terminology and research in individuals at risk of rheumatoid arthritis : report from the Study Group for Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 71:5, s. 638-641
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Study Group for Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis was established by the EULAR Standing Committee on Investigative Rheumatology to facilitate research into the preclinical and earliest clinically apparent phases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This report describes the recommendation for terminology to be used to define specific subgroups during different phases of disease, and defines the priorities for research in this area. Terminology was discussed by way of a three-stage structured process: A provisional list of descriptors for each of the possible phases preceding the diagnosis of RA were circulated to members of the study group for review and feedback. Anonymised comments from the members on this list were fed back to participants before a 2-day meeting. 18 participants met to discuss these data, agree terminologies and prioritise important research questions. The study group recommended that, in prospective studies, individuals without RA are described as having: genetic risk factors for RA; environmental risk factors for RA; systemic autoimmunity associated with RA; symptoms without clinical arthritis; unclassified arthritis; which may be used in a combinatorial manner. It was recommended that the prefix 'pre-RA with:' could be used before any/any combination of the five points above but only to describe retrospectively a phase that an individual had progressed through once it was known that they have developed RA. An approach to dating disease onset was recommended. In addition, important areas for research were proposed, including research of other tissues in which an adaptive immune response may be initiated, and the identification of additional risk factors and biomarkers for the development of RA, its progression and the development of extra-articular features. These recommendations provide guidance on approaches to describe phases before the development of RA that will facilitate communication between researchers and comparisons between studies. A number of research questions have been defined, requiring new cohorts to be established and new techniques to be developed to image and collect material from different sites.
  • Langefeld, Carl D., et al. (författare)
  • Transancestral mapping and genetic load in systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with marked gender and ethnic disparities. We report a large transancestral association study of SLE using Immunochip genotype data from 27,574 individuals of European (EA), African (AA) and Hispanic Amerindian (HA) ancestry. We identify 58 distinct non-HLA regions in EA, 9 in AA and 16 in HA (similar to 50% of these regions have multiple independent associations); these include 24 novel SLE regions (P < 5 x 10(-8)), refined association signals in established regions, extended associations to additional ancestries, and a disentangled complex HLA multigenic effect. The risk allele count (genetic load) exhibits an accelerating pattern of SLE risk, leading us to posit a cumulative hit hypothesis for autoimmune disease. Comparing results across the three ancestries identifies both ancestry-dependent and ancestry-independent contributions to SLE risk. Our results are consistent with the unique and complex histories of the populations sampled, and collectively help clarify the genetic architecture and ethnic disparities in SLE.
  • Saevarsdottir, S., et al. (författare)
  • Multiomics analysis of rheumatoid arthritis yields sequence variants that have large effects on risk of the seropositive subset
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To find causal genes for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its seropositive (RF and/or ACPA positive) and seronegative subsets. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 31 313 RA cases (68% seropositive) and similar to 1 million controls from Northwestern Europe. We searched for causal genes outside the HLA-locus through effect on coding, mRNA expression in several tissues and/or levels of plasma proteins (SomaScan) and did network analysis (Qiagen). Results We found 25 sequence variants for RA overall, 33 for seropositive and 2 for seronegative RA, altogether 37 sequence variants at 34 non-HLA loci, of which 15 are novel. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of these yielded 25 causal genes in seropositive RA and additional two overall. Most encode proteins in the network of interferon-alpha/beta and IL-12/23 that signal through the JAK/STAT-pathway. Highlighting those with largest effect on seropositive RA, a rare missense variant in STAT4 (rs140675301-A) that is independent of reported non-coding STAT4-variants, increases the risk of seropositive RA 2.27-fold (p=2.1x10(-9)), more than the rs2476601-A missense variant in PTPN22 (OR=1.59, p=1.3x10(-160)). STAT4 rs140675301-A replaces hydrophilic glutamic acid with hydrophobic valine (Glu128Val) in a conserved, surface-exposed loop. A stop-mutation (rs76428106-C) in FLT3 increases seropositive RA risk (OR=1.35, p=6.6x10(-11)). Independent missense variants in TYK2 (rs34536443-C, rs12720356-C, rs35018800-A, latter two novel) associate with decreased risk of seropositive RA (ORs=0.63-0.87, p=10(-9)-10(-27)) and decreased plasma levels of interferon-alpha/beta receptor 1 that signals through TYK2/JAK1/STAT4. Conclusion Sequence variants pointing to causal genes in the JAK/STAT pathway have largest effect on seropositive RA, while associations with seronegative RA remain scarce.
  • Arnardóttir, S., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term outcomes of patients with acromegaly: a report from the Swedish Pituitary Register
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : European Society of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X .- 0804-4643. ; 186:3, s. 329-339
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To describe the treatment and long-term outcomes of patients with acromegaly from all healthcare regions in Sweden. Design and methods: Analysis of prospectively reported data from the Swedish Pituitary Register of 698 patients (51% females) with acromegaly diagnosed from 1991 to 2011. The latest clinical follow-up date was December 2012, while mortality data were collected for 28.5 years until June 2019. Results: The annual incidence was 3.7/million; 71% of patients had a macroadenoma, 18% had visual field defects, and 25% had at least one pituitary hormone deficiency. Eighty-two percent had pituitary surgery, 10% radiotherapy, and 39% medical treatment. At the 5- and 10-year follow-ups, insulin-like growth factor 1 levels were within the reference range in 69 and 78% of patients, respectively. In linear regression, the proportion of patients with biochemical control including adjuvant therapy at 10 years follow-up increased over time by 1.23% per year. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) (95% CI) for all patients was 1.29 (1.11-1.49). For patients with biochemical control at the latest follow-up, SMR was not increased, neither among patients diagnosed between 1991 and 2000, SMR: 1.06 (0.85-1.33) nor between 2001 and2011, SMR: 0.87 (0.61-1.24). In contrast, non-controlled patients at the latest follow-up from both decades had elevated SMR, 1.90 (1.33-2.72) and 1.98 (1.24-3.14), respectively. Conclusions: The proportion of patients with biochemical control increased over time. Patients with biochemically controlled acromegaly have normal life expectancy, while non-controlled patients still have increased mortality. The high rate of macroadenomas and unchanged age at diagnosis illustrates the need for improvements in the management of patients with acromegaly.
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