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Sökning: WFRF:(Devereux Graham)

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  • Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M. M, et al. (författare)
  • Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk: A meta-analysis of 147,000 European children
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 133:5, s. 1317-1329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. Objectives: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31 birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). Methods: First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age less than 37 weeks) and low birth weight (less than 2500 g) with childhood asthma outcomes. Results: Younger gestational age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P less than. 05). The inverse associations of birth weight with childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal infant weight gain, we observed the highest risks of school-age asthma in children born preterm with high infant weight gain (odds ratio [OR], 4.47; 95% CI, 2.58-7.76). Preterm birth was positively associated with an increased risk of preschool wheezing (pooled odds ratio [pOR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.25-1.43) and school-age asthma (pOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.67) independent of birth weight. Weaker effect estimates were observed for the associations of low birth weight adjusted for gestational age at birth with preschool wheezing (pOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21) and school-age asthma (pOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27). Conclusion: Younger gestational age at birth and higher infant weight gain were associated with childhood asthma outcomes. The associations of lower birth weight with childhood asthma were largely explained by gestational age at birth.
  • Wang, Gang, et al. (författare)
  • Spirometric phenotypes from early childhood to young adulthood : a Chronic Airway Disease Early Stratification study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: ERJ Open Research. - : ERS Publications. - 2312-0541. ; 7:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The prevalences of obstructive and restrictive spirometric phenotypes, and their relation to early-life risk factors from childhood to young adulthood remain poorly understood. The aim was to explore these phenotypes and associations with well-known respiratory risk factors across ages and populations in European cohorts.Methods: We studied 49334 participants from 14 population-based cohorts in different age groups (⩽10, >10–15, >15–20, >20–25 years, and overall, 5–25 years). The obstructive phenotype was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) z-score less than the lower limit of normal (LLN), whereas the restrictive phenotype was defined as FEV1/FVC z-score ⩾LLN, and FVC z-score Results: The prevalence of obstructive and restrictive phenotypes varied from 3.2–10.9% and 1.8–7.7%, respectively, without clear age trends. A diagnosis of asthma (adjusted odds ratio (aOR=2.55, 95% CI 2.14–3.04), preterm birth (aOR=1.84, 1.27–2.66), maternal smoking during pregnancy (aOR=1.16, 95% CI 1.01–1.35) and family history of asthma (aOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.25–1.66) were associated with a higher prevalence of obstructive, but not restrictive, phenotype across ages (5–25 years). A higher current body mass index (BMI was more often observed in those with the obstructive phenotype but less in those with the restrictive phenotype (aOR=1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.06 and aOR=0.81, 95% CI 0.78–0.85, per kg·m−2 increase in BMI, respectively). Current smoking was associated with the obstructive phenotype in participants older than 10 years (aOR=1.24, 95% CI 1.05–1.46).Conclusion: Obstructive and restrictive phenotypes were found to be relatively prevalent during childhood, which supports the early origins concept. Several well-known respiratory risk factors were associated with the obstructive phenotype, whereas only low BMI was associated with the restrictive phenotype, suggesting different underlying pathobiology of these two phenotypes.
  • Bolger, Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Hyperpnea-Induced Bronchoconstriction and Urinary CC16 Levels in Athletes
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1530-0315. ; 43:7, s. 1207-1213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BOLGER, C., E. TUFVESSON, M. SUE-CHU, G. DEVEREUX, J. G. AYRES, L. BJERMER, and P. KIPPELEN. Hyperpnea-Induced Bronchoconstriction and Urinary CC16 Levels in Athletes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 43, No. 7, pp. 1207-1213, 2011. Purpose: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common condition in both individuals with asthma and otherwise healthy elite athletes. Although excessive water loss by peripheral airways during hyperpnea is regarded as the initial trigger for EIB, the cascade of events that follows remains unclear. Our goal was to establish whether transient disruption of the airway epithelial barrier occurs after a short period of hyperpnea of dry air in athletes with EIB. Methods: Urinary concentration of the pneumoprotein Clara cell (CC16) was used as an assumed biomarker of lung epithelial cell damage or dysfunction. Samples were collected at baseline and for 90 min after an 8-min eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH) test in 50 female individuals (28 athletes and 22 untrained). Results: Nineteen subjects (10 athletes) demonstrated a sustained bronchoconstriction after EVH (mean +/- SE forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) fall from baseline = 23.4% +/- 2.6%). The remaining subjects had a negative challenge result with an FEV1 fall of 5.9% +/- 0.6%. An increase (P < 0.001) in urinary CC16 concentration was noticed after EVH in all but one subject, with no group difference (median CC16 increase before to after challenge: athletes EVH- 0.083 ng.mu mol(-1), athletes EVH+ 0.223 ng.mu mol(-1), untrained EVH- 0.074 ng.mu mol(-1), untrained EVH+ 0.571 ng.mu mol(-1); P > 0.05). Conclusions: Urinary levels of CC16 are increased after EVH in all individuals (trained and untrained, with and without EIB) suggestive of dehydration-induced perturbation of the distal respiratory epithelium during episodes of hyperventilation.
  • Bolger, Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Urinary cc16 levels in winter versus summer sport athletes after eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea
  • 2009
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is highly prevalent in elite athletes, especially in those training in cold dry environments. Dehydration of the airways plays a key role in this process. EIB has recently been linked to airway epithelial injury in asthmatic individuals. The aim of the study is to determine whether a short period of hyperpnoea of dry air causes airway epithelial disruption in winter and/or summer sport athletes. We hypothesise that urinary level of the Clara cell protein (CC16) – an indirect marker of permeability/cellular integrity of the lung epithelial barrier – will be increased after a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) test and that this increase will be larger in winter compared to summer athletes. Forty two female athletes – 28 summer athletes (age 31.1+/-1.7yr (SEM), training volume 9+/-1.1h/wk) and 14 winter athletes (age 21.4+/-0.8yr, training volume 12.0 ± 1.10h/wk) – took part in this study. They all performed an 8-min EVH test at a target ventilation rate of 30 times their baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). After the challenge, FEV1 was measured in duplicate at 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 and 90min. A sustained decrease in FEV1 of at least 10% from baseline was considered positive. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60 and 90min recovery. CC16 concentration was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Ten summer athletes had a positive test (max FEV1 fall = 19.6+/-2.4%), whilst eighteen of the summer athletes and all the winter athletes were negative (max FEV1 fall = 5.7+/-0.7% and 5.3+/-0.7%, respectively). CC16 increased significantly after the challenge in all three groups (P<0.01) with no difference between groups: delta CC16 (max post-EVH minus baseline) in summer EVH negative athletes was 0.241+/-0.1 ng/μmol creatinine, 0.292+/-0.085 ng/μmol creatinine in summer EVH positive athletes, and 0.123+/-0.047ng/μmol creatinine in winter EVH negative athletes (P=0.415)In conclusion, a short period of hyperpnoea of dry air is associated with an increased rate of CC16 excretion in urine in both winter and summer athletes. This suggests that the integrity of the airway epithelium might be compromised by loss of airway surface lining fluid when athletes inhale dry air at high flow rates. This appears to occur irrespective of the degree of bronchoconstriction or regular training environment.
  • Stemann Larsen, Pernille, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy and Birth Cohort Resources in Europe: a Large Opportunity for Aetiological Child Health Research
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 27:4, s. 393-414
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross-cohort collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net. Methods European pregnancy and birth cohorts initiated in 1980 or later with at least 300 mother-child pairs enrolled during pregnancy or at birth, and with postnatal data, were eligible for inclusion. Eligible cohorts were invited to provide information on the data and biological samples collected, as well as the timing of data collection. Results In total, 70 cohorts were identified. Of these, 56 fulfilled the inclusion criteria encompassing a total of more than 500000 live-born European children. The cohorts represented 19 countries with the majority of cohorts located in Northern and Western Europe. Some cohorts were general with multiple aims, whilst others focused on specific health or exposure-related research questions. Conclusion This work demonstrates a great potential for cross-cohort collaboration addressing important aspects of child health. The web site, http://www.birthcohorts.net, proved to be a useful tool for accessing information on European pregnancy and birth cohorts and their characteristics.
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