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Sökning: WFRF:(Dharmage Shyamali C.)

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1.
  • Pape, Kathrine, et al. (författare)
  • Parental occupational exposure pre- and post-conception and development of asthma in offspring
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 49:6, s. 1856-1869
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: While direct effects of occupational exposures on an individual's respiratory health are evident, a new paradigm is emerging on the possible effects of preconception occupational exposure on respiratory health in offspring. We aimed to study the association between parental occupational exposure starting before conception and asthma in their offspring (at 0-15 years of age).Methods: We studied 3985 offspring participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Their mothers or fathers (n = 2931) previously participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Information was obtained from questionnaires on parental job history pre- and post-conception which was linked to an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). We assessed the association between parental occupational exposure and offspring asthma, applying logistic regression models, clustered by family and adjusted for study centre, offspring sex, parental characteristics (age, asthma onset, place of upbringing, smoking) and grandparents' level of education.Results: Parental occupational exposure to microorganisms, pesticides, allergens or reactive chemicals pre-conception or both pre- and post-conception was not related to offspring asthma; in general, subgroup analyses confirmed this result. However, maternal exposure both pre- and post-conception to allergens and reactive chemicals was associated with increased odds for early-onset asthma in offspring (0-3 years of age); odds ratio 1.70 (95% CI: 1.02-2.84) and 1.65 (95% CI: 0.98-2.77), respectively.Conclusions: This study did not find evidence that parental occupational exposure, defined by an asthma JEM before conception only or during pre- and post-conception vs non-exposed, was associated with offspring asthma.
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2.
  • Dratva, J., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of self-reported figural drawing scales against anthropometric measurements in adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1368-9800 .- 1475-2727. ; 19:11, s. 1944-1951
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate figural drawing scales depicting extremely lean to extremely obese subjects to obtain proxies for BMI and waist circumference in postal surveys. Design: Reported figural scales and anthropometric data from a large population-based postal survey were validated with measured anthropometric data from the same individuals by means of receiver-operating characteristic curves and a BMI prediction model. Setting: Adult participants in a Scandinavian cohort study first recruited in 1990 and followed up twice since. Subjects: Individuals aged 38-66 years with complete data for BMI (n 1580) and waist circumference (n 1017). Results: Median BMI and waist circumference increased exponentially with increasing figural scales. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses showed a high predictive ability to identify individuals with BMI > 25.0 kg/m(2) in both sexes. The optimal figural scales for identifying overweight or obese individuals with a correct detection rate were 4 and 5 in women, and 5 and 6 in men, respectively. The prediction model explained 74% of the variance among women and 62% among men. Predicted BMI differed only marginally from objectively measured BMI. Conclusions: Figural drawing scales explained a large part of the anthropometric variance in this population and showed a high predictive ability for identifying overweight/obese subjects. These figural scales can be used with confidence as proxies of BMI and waist circumference in settings where objective measures are not feasible.
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3.
  • Marcon, A., et al. (författare)
  • Trends in smoking initiation in Europe over 40 years: A retrospective cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 13:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Tobacco consumption is the largest avoidable health risk. Understanding changes of smoking over time and across populations is crucial to implementing health policies. We evaluated trends in smoking initiation between 1970 and 2009 in random samples of European populations. We pooled data from six multicentre studies involved in the Ageing Lungs in European Cohorts consortium, including overall 119,104 subjects from 17 countries (range of median ages across studies: 33-52 years). We estimated retrospectively trends in the rates of smoking initiation (uptake of regular smoking) by age group, and tested birth cohort effects using Age-Period-Cohort (APC) modelling. We stratified all analyses by sex and region (North, East, South, West Europe). Smoking initiation during late adolescence (16-20 years) declined for both sexes and in all regions (except for South Europe, where decline levelled off after 1990). By the late 2000s, rates of initiation during late adolescence were still high (40-80 per 1000/year) in East, South, and West Europe compared to North Europe (20 per 1000/year). Smoking initiation rates during early adolescence (11-15 years) showed a marked increase after 1990 in all regions (except for North European males) but especially in West Europe, where they reached 40 per 1000/year around 2005. APC models supported birth cohort effects in the youngest cohorts. Smoking initiation is still unacceptably high among European adolescents, and increasing rates among those aged 15 or less deserve attention. Reducing initiation in adolescents is fundamental, since youngsters are particularly vulnerable to nicotine addiction and tobacco adverse effects.
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4.
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
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5.
  • Pesce, G., et al. (författare)
  • Low serum DHEA-S is associated with impaired lung function in women
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: EClinicalMedicine. - : Elsevier. - 2589-5370. ; 23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Emerging evidence suggests that androgens and estrogens have a role in respiratory health, but it is largely unknown whether levels of these hormones can affect lung function in adults from the general population. This study investigated whether serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), a key precursor of both androgens and estrogens in peripheral tissues, was related to lung function in adult women participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Methods: Lung function and serum DHEA-S concentrations were measured in n = 2,045 and n = 1,725 women in 1999–2002 and in 2010–2013, respectively. Cross-sectional associations of DHEA-S levels (expressed as age-adjusted z-score) with spirometric outcomes were investigated, adjusting for smoking habits, body mass index, menopausal status, and use of corticosteroids. Longitudinal associations of DHEA-S levels in 1999–2002 with incidence of restrictive pattern and airflow limitation in 2010–2013 were also assessed. Findings: Women with low DHEA-S (z-score<-1) had lower FEV1 (% of predicted, adjusted difference: -2.2; 95%CI: -3.5 to -0.9) and FVC (-1.7; 95%CI: -2.9 to -0.5) and were at a greater risk of having airflow limitation and restrictive pattern on spirometry than women with higher DHEA-S levels. In longitudinal analyses, low DHEA-S at baseline was associated with a greater incidence of airflow limitation after an 11-years follow-up (incidence rate ratio, 3.43; 95%CI: 1.91 to 6.14). Interpretation: Low DHEA-S levels in women were associated with impaired lung function and a greater risk of developing airflow limitation later in adult life. Our findings provide new evidence supporting a role of DHEA-S in respiratory health. Funding: EU H2020, grant agreement no.633212 © 2020 The Authors
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6.
  • Kuiper, I. N., et al. (författare)
  • Agreement in reporting of asthma by parents or offspring - the RHINESSA generation study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Bmc Pulmonary Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2466. ; 18:122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Self-report questionnaires are commonly used in epidemiology, but may be susceptible to misclassification, especially if answers are given on behalf of others, e.g. children or parents. The aim was to determine agreement and analyse predictors of disagreement in parents' reports of offspring asthma, and in offspring reports of parents' asthma. Methods: In the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study, 6752 offspring (age range 18-51 years) and their parents (age range 39-66 years) reported their own and each other's asthma status. Agreement between asthma reports from offspring and parents was determined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and Cohen's kappa. The participants' own answers regarding themselves were defined as the gold standard. To investigate predictors for disagreement logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sex, smoking status, education, comorbidity and severity of asthma. Results: Agreement was good for parental report of offspring early onset asthma (< 10 years, Cohen's kappa 0.72) and moderate for offspring later onset asthma (Cohen's kappa 0.46). Specificity was 0.99 for both, and sensitivity was 0.68 and 0.36, respectively. For offspring report of maternal and paternal asthma the agreement was good (Cohen's kappa 0.69 and 0.68), specificity was 0.96 and 0.97, and sensitivity was 0.72 and 0.68, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) was lowest for offspring report of maternal asthma (0.75), and highest for parents' report of early onset asthma in the offspring (0.83). The negative predictive value (NPV) was high for all four groups (0.94-0.97). In multivariate analyses current smokers (OR = 1.46 [95% CI 1.05, 2.02]) and fathers (OR = 1.31 [95% CI 1. 08, 1.59]) were more likely to report offspring asthma incorrectly. Offspring wheeze was associated with reporting parental asthma incorrectly (OR = 1.60 [95% CI 1.21, 2.11]), both under- and over reporting. Conclusions: Asthma reports across generations show moderate to good agreement, making information from other generations a useful tool in the absence of direct reports.
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7.
  • Triebner, Kai, et al. (författare)
  • Exogenous female sex steroids may reduce lung ageing after menopause : A 20-year follow-up study of a general population sample (ECRHS)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Maturitas. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0378-5122 .- 1873-4111. ; 120, s. 29-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Menopause involves hypoestrogenism, which is associated with numerous detrimental effects, including on respiratory health. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often used to improve symptoms of menopause. The effects of HRT on lung function decline, hence lung ageing, have not yet been investigated despite the recognized effects of HRT on other health outcomes. Study design: The population-based multi-centre European Community Respiratory Health Survey provided complete data for 275 oral HRT users at two time points, who were matched with 383 nonusers and analysed with a two-level linear mixed effects regression model. Main outcome measures: We studied whether HRT use was associated with the annual decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Results: Lung function of women using oral HRT for more than five years declined less rapidly than that of nonusers. The adjusted difference in FVC decline was 5.6 mL/y (95%CI: 1.8 to 9.3, p = 0.01) for women who had taken HRT for six to ten years and 8.9 mL/y (3.5 to 14.2, p = 0.003) for those who had taken it for more than ten years. The adjusted difference in FEV1 decline was 4.4 mL/y (0.9 to 8.0, p = 0.02) with treatment from six to ten years and 5.3 mL/y (0.4 to 10.2, p = 0.048) with treatment for over ten years. Conclusions: In this longitudinal population-based study, the decline in lung function was less rapid in women who used HRT, following a dose-response pattern, and consistent when adjusting for potential confounding factors. This may signify that female sex hormones are of importance for lung ageing.
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8.
  • Triebner, K., et al. (författare)
  • Menopause Is Associated with Accelerated Lung Function Decline
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - : AMER THORACIC SOC. - 1073-449X .- 1535-4970. ; 195:8, s. 1058-1065
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Menopause is associated with changes in sex hormones, which affect immunity, inflammation, and osteoporosis and may impair lung function. Lung function decline has not previously been investigated in relation to menopause. Objectives: To study whether lung function decline, assessed by FVC and FEV1, is accelerated in women who undergo menopause. Methods: The population-based longitudinal European Community Respiratory Health Survey provided serum samples, spirometry, and questionnaire data about respiratory and reproductive health from three study waves (n = 1,438). We measured follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and added information on menstrual patterns to determine menopausal status using latent class analysis. Associations with lung function decline were investigated using linear mixed effects models, adjusting for age, height, weight, pack-years, current smoking, age at completed full-time education, spirometer, and including study center as random effect. Measurements and Main Results: Menopausal status was associated with accelerated lung function decline. The adjusted mean FVC decline was increased by -10.2 ml/yr (95% confidence interval [CI], -13.1 to -7.2) in transitional women and -12.5 ml/yr (95% CI, -16.2 to -8.9) in post-menopausal women, compared with women menstruating regularly. The adjusted mean FEV1 decline increased by -3.8 ml/yr (95% CI, -6.3 to -2.9) in transitional women and -5.2 ml/yr (95% CI, -8.3 to -2.0) in post-menopausal women. Conclusions: Lung function declined more rapidly among transitional and post-menopausal women, in particular for FVC, beyond the expected age change. Clinicians should be aware that respiratory health often deteriorates during reproductive aging.
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9.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Being overweight in childhood, puberty, or early adulthood : Changing asthma risk in the next generation?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 145:3, s. 791-799
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Overweight status and asthma have increased during the last decades. Being overweight is a known risk factor for asthma, but it is not known whether it might also increase asthma risk in the next generation.Objective: We aimed to examine whether parents being overweight in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood is associated with asthma in their offspring.Methods: We included 6347 adult offspring (age, 18-52 years) investigated in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) multigeneration study of 2044 fathers and 2549 mothers (age, 37-66 years) investigated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) study. Associations of parental overweight status at age 8 years, puberty, and age 30 years with offspring's childhood overweight status (potential mediator) and offspring's asthma with or without nasal allergies (outcomes) was analyzed by using 2-level logistic regression and 2-level multinomial logistic regression, respectively. Counterfactual-based mediation analysis was performed to establish whether observed associations were direct or indirect effects mediated through the offspring's own overweight status.Results: We found statistically significant associations between both fathers' and mothers' childhood overweight status and offspring's childhood overweight status (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.45-3.42] and 2.45 [95% CI, 1.86-3.22], respectively). We also found a statistically significant effect of fathers' onset of being overweight in puberty on offspring's asthma without nasal allergies (relative risk ratio, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.23-4.33]). This effect was direct and not mediated through the offspring's own overweight status. No effect on offspring's asthma with nasal allergies was found.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that metabolic factors long before conception can increase asthma risk and that male puberty is a time window of particular importance for offspring's health.
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10.
  • Russell, Melissa A., et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity and asthma : a longitudinal and multi-country study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Asthma. - Abingdon : Taylor & Francis. - 0277-0903 .- 1532-4303. ; 54:9, s. 938-945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the impact of physical activity on asthma in middle-aged adults, in one longitudinal analysis, and one multi-centre cross-sectional analysis.Methods: The Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) is a population-based postal questionnaire cohort study. Physical activity, height and weight were self-reported in Bergen, Norway, at RHINE II (1999–2001) and all centres at RHINE III (2010–2012). A longitudinal analysis of Bergen data investigated the association of baseline physical activity with follow-up asthma, incident asthma and symptoms, using logistic and zero-inflated Poisson regression (n = 1782). A cross-sectional analysis of all RHINE III centres investigated the association of physical activity with concurrent asthma and symptoms (n = 13,542) using mixed-effects models. Body mass index (BMI) was categorised (<20, 20–24.99, 25–29.99, 30+ kg/m2) and physical activity grouped by amount and frequency of lighter (no sweating/heavy breathing) and vigorous (sweating/heavy breathing) activity.Results: In the Bergen longitudinal analysis, undertaking light activity 3+ times/week at baseline was associated with less follow-up asthma (odds ratio [OR] 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22, 0.89), whilst an effect from undertaking vigorous activity 3+ times/week was not detected (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.44, 2.76). The associations were attenuated with BMI adjustment. In the all-centre cross-sectional analysis an interaction was found, with the association between physical activity and asthma varying across BMI categories.Conclusion: These findings suggest potential longer-term benefit from lighter physical activity, whilst improvement in asthma outcomes from increasing activity intensity was not evident. Additionally, it appears the benefit from physical activity may differ according to BMI.
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