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Sökning: WFRF:(Diekmann Jan)

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  • Biurrun, Idoia, et al. (författare)
  • Benchmarking plant diversity of Palaearctic grasslands and other open habitats
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Vegetation Science. - Oxford : International Association of Vegetation Science. - 1100-9233 .- 1654-1103. ; 32:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Understanding fine-grain diversity patterns across large spatial extents is fundamental for macroecological research and biodiversity conservation. Using the GrassPlot database, we provide benchmarks of fine-grain richness values of Palaearctic open habitats for vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and complete vegetation (i.e., the sum of the former three groups). Location: Palaearctic biogeographic realm. Methods: We used 126,524 plots of eight standard grain sizes from the GrassPlot database: 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 m2 and calculated the mean richness and standard deviations, as well as maximum, minimum, median, and first and third quartiles for each combination of grain size, taxonomic group, biome, region, vegetation type and phytosociological class. Results: Patterns of plant diversity in vegetation types and biomes differ across grain sizes and taxonomic groups. Overall, secondary (mostly semi-natural) grasslands and natural grasslands are the richest vegetation type. The open-access file ”GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks” and the web tool “GrassPlot Diversity Explorer” are now available online (https://edgg.org/databases/GrasslandDiversityExplorer) and provide more insights into species richness patterns in the Palaearctic open habitats. Conclusions: The GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks provide high-quality data on species richness in open habitat types across the Palaearctic. These benchmark data can be used in vegetation ecology, macroecology, biodiversity conservation and data quality checking. While the amount of data in the underlying GrassPlot database and their spatial coverage are smaller than in other extensive vegetation-plot databases, species recordings in GrassPlot are on average more complete, making it a valuable complementary data source in macroecology.
  • Dengler, Juergen, et al. (författare)
  • GrassPlot - a database of multi-scale plant diversity in Palaearctic grasslands
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Phytocoenologia. - : E. Schweizerbart Science Publishers. - 0340-269X. ; 48:3, s. 331-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • GrassPlot is a collaborative vegetation-plot database organised by the Eurasian Dry Grassland Group (EDGG) and listed in the Global Index of Vegetation-Plot Databases (GIVD ID EU-00-003). GrassPlot collects plot records (releves) from grasslands and other open habitats of the Palaearctic biogeographic realm. It focuses on precisely delimited plots of eight standard grain sizes (0.0001; 0.001;... 1,000 m(2)) and on nested-plot series with at least four different grain sizes. The usage of GrassPlot is regulated through Bylaws that intend to balance the interests of data contributors and data users. The current version (v. 1.00) contains data for approximately 170,000 plots of different sizes and 2,800 nested-plot series. The key components are richness data and metadata. However, most included datasets also encompass compositional data. About 14,000 plots have near-complete records of terricolous bryophytes and lichens in addition to vascular plants. At present, GrassPlot contains data from 36 countries throughout the Palaearctic, spread across elevational gradients and major grassland types. GrassPlot with its multi-scale and multi-taxon focus complements the larger international vegetationplot databases, such as the European Vegetation Archive (EVA) and the global database " sPlot". Its main aim is to facilitate studies on the scale-and taxon-dependency of biodiversity patterns and drivers along macroecological gradients. GrassPlot is a dynamic database and will expand through new data collection coordinated by the elected Governing Board. We invite researchers with suitable data to join GrassPlot. Researchers with project ideas addressable with GrassPlot data are welcome to submit proposals to the Governing Board.
  • Acharya, Kamal Prasad, et al. (författare)
  • Latitudinal variation of life-history traits of an exotic and a native impatiens species in Europe
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Oecologica. - 1146-609X .- 1873-6238. ; 81, s. 40-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the responses of invasive and native populations to environmental change is crucial for reliable predictions of invasions in the face of global change. While comparisons of responses across invasive species with different life histories have been performed before, comparing functional traits of congeneric native and invasive species may help to reveal driving factors associated with invasion. Here we compared morphological functional trait patterns of an invasive species (Impatiens parviflora) with its congeneric native species (I. noli-tangere) along an approximately 1600 km European latitudinal gradient from France (49 degrees 34'N) to Norway (63 degrees 40'N). Soil nitrogen was recorded during six weeks of the growing season, and light, soil moisture, and nutrient availability were estimated for each sampled population using community weighted means of indicator values for co-occurring species. Temperature data were gathered from nearby weather stations. Both the native and invasive species are taller at higher latitudes and this response is strongest in the invasive species. Seed mass and number of seeds per capsule increase in I. noli-tangere but decrease in I. parviflora towards higher latitudes. Surprisingly, plant height in the invasive I. parviflora decreases with increasing soil nitrogen availability. The latitudinal pattern in seed mass is positively related to temperature in I. noli-tangere and negatively in I. parviflora. Leaf area of both species decreases with increasing Ellenberg indicator values for nitrogen and light but increases with increasing soil moisture. Soil nitrogen concentrations and Ellenberg indicator values for nitrogen have significant positive (I. nolitangere) and negative (I. parviflora) effects on the number of seeds per capsule. Our results show that the native I. noli-tangere has efficient reproduction at its range edge while the invasive I. parviflora shows a marked decrease in seed size and seed number per capsule. These patterns are unrelated to the growth and obtained size of the plants: even low soil nitrogen availability in the north seemed not to limit plant growth and size. Our results suggest that the invasive I. parviflora tends to become more invasive at lower latitudes by producing heavier seeds and more seeds per capsule.
  • Caron, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Divergent regeneration responses of two closely related tree species to direct abiotic and indirect biotic effects of climate change
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management. - 0378-1127 .- 1872-7042. ; 342, s. 21-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Changing temperature and precipitation can strongly influence plant reproduction. However, also biotic interactions might indirectly affect the reproduction and recruitment success of plants in the context of climate change. Information about the interactive effects of changes in abiotic and biotic factors is essential, but still largely lacking, to better understand the potential effects of a changing climate on plant populations. Here we analyze the regeneration from seeds of Acer platanoides and Acer pseudoplatanus, two currently secondary forest tree species from seven regions along a 2200 km-wide latitudinal gradient in Europe. We assessed the germination, seedling survival and growth during two years in a common garden experiment where temperature, precipitation and competition with the understory vegetation were manipulated. A. platanoides was more sensitive to changes in biotic conditions while A. pseudoplatanus was affected by both abiotic and biotic changes. In general, competition reduced (in A. platanoides) and warming enhanced (in A. pseudoplatanus) germination and survival, respectively. Reduced competition strongly increased the growth of A. platanoides seedlings. Seedling responses were independent of the conditions experienced by the mother tree during seed production and maturation. Our results indicate that, due to the negative effects of competition on the regeneration of A. platanoides, it is likely that under stronger competition (projected under future climatic conditions) this species will be negatively affected in terms of germination, survival and seedling biomass. Climate-change experiments including both abiotic and biotic factors constitute a key step forward to better understand the response of tree species' regeneration to climate change.
  • Caron, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Impacts of warming and changes in precipitation frequency on the regeneration of two Acer species
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Flora. - 0367-2530 .- 1618-0585. ; 214, s. 24-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate projections indicate that temperatures will increase by up to 4.5 degrees C in Europe by the end of this century, and that more extreme rainfall events and longer intervening dry periods will take place. Climate change will likely affect all phases of the life cycle of plants, but plant reproduction has been suggested to be especially sensitive. Here, using a combination of approaches (soil heaters and different provenances along a latitudinal gradient), we analyzed the regeneration from seeds of Acer platanoides and A. pseudoplatanus, two tree species considered, from a management point of view, of secondary relevance. We studied germination, seedling survival and growth in a full-factorial experiment including warming and changes in watering frequency. Both species responded to warming, watering frequency and seed provenance, with stronger (negative) effects of warming and provenance than of watering frequency. In general, the central provenances performed better than the northernmost and southern-most provenances. We also detected interactive effects between warming, watering frequency and/or seed provenance. Based on these results, both species are expected to show dissimilar responses to the changes in the studied climatic factors, but also the impacts of climate change on the different phases of plant regeneration may differ in direction and magnitude. In general increases in the precipitation, frequency will stimulate germination while warming will reduce survival and growth. Moreover, the frequent divergent responses of seedlings along the latitudinal gradient suggest that climate change will likely have heterogeneous impacts across Europe, with stronger impacts in the northern and southern parts of the species' distribution ranges.
  • Caron, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Interacting effects of warming and drought on regeneration and early growth of Acer pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Plant Biology. - 1435-8603 .- 1438-8677. ; 17:1, s. 52-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change is acting on several aspects of plant life cycles, including the sexual reproductive stage, which is considered amongst the most sensitive life-cycle phases. In temperate forests, it is expected that climate change will lead to a compositional change in community structure due to changes in the dominance of currently more abundant forest tree species. Increasing our understanding of the effects of climate change on currently secondary tree species recruitment is therefore important to better understand and forecast population and community dynamics in forests. Here, we analyse the interactive effects of rising temperatures and soil moisture reduction on germination, seedling survival and early growth of two important secondary European tree species, Acer pseudoplatanus and A.platanoides. Additionally, we analyse the effect of the temperature experienced by the mother tree during seed production by collecting seeds of both species along a 2200-km long latitudinal gradient. For most of the responses, A.platanoides showed higher sensitivity to the treatments applied, and especially to its joint manipulation, which for some variables resulted in additive effects while for others only partial compensation. In both species, germination and survival decreased with rising temperatures and/or soil moisture reduction while early growth decreased with declining soil moisture content. We conclude that although A.platanoides germination and survival were more affected after the applied treatments, its initial higher germination and larger seedlings might allow this species to be relatively more successful than A.pseudoplatanus in the face of climate change.
  • Caron, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Latitudinal variation in seeds characteristics of Acer platanoides and A. pseudoplatanus
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Plant Ecology. - 1385-0237 .- 1573-5052. ; 215:8, s. 911-925
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change will likely affect population dynamics of numerous plant species by modifying several aspects of the life cycle. Because plant regeneration from seeds may be particularly vulnerable, here we assess the possible effects of climate change on seed characteristics and present an integrated analysis of seven seed traits (nutrient concentrations, samara mass, seed mass, wing length, seed viability, germination percentage, and seedling biomass) of Acer platanoides and A. pseudoplatanus seeds collected along a wide latitudinal gradient from Italy to Norway. Seed traits were analyzed in relation to the environmental conditions experienced by the mother trees along the latitudinal gradient. We found that seed traits of A. platanoides were more influenced by the climatic conditions than those of A. pseudoplatanus. Additionally, seed viability, germination percentage, and seedling biomass of A. platanoides were strongly related to the seed mass and nutrient concentration. While A. platanoides seeds were more influenced by the environmental conditions (generally negatively affected by rising temperatures), compared to A. pseudoplatanus, A. platanoides still showed higher germination percentage and seedling biomass than A. pseudoplatanus. Thus, further research on subsequent life-history stages of both species is needed. The variation in seed quality observed along the climatic gradient highlights the importance of studying the possible impact of climate change on seed production and species demography.
  • De Frenne, Pieter, et al. (författare)
  • Latitudinal gradients as natural laboratories to infer species' responses to temperature
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Ecology. - 0022-0477 .- 1365-2745. ; 101:3, s. 784-795
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Macroclimatic variation along latitudinal gradients provides an excellent natural laboratory to investigate the role of temperature and the potential impacts of climate warming on terrestrial organisms. Here, we review the use of latitudinal gradients for ecological climate change research, in comparison with altitudinal gradients and experimental warming, and illustrate their use and caveats with a meta-analysis of latitudinal intraspecific variation in important life-history traits of vascular plants. We first provide an overview of latitudinal patterns in temperature and other abiotic and biotic environmental variables in terrestrial ecosystems. We then assess the latitudinal intraspecific variation present in five key life-history traits [plant height, specific leaf area (SLA), foliar nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) stoichiometry, seed mass and root:shoot (R:S) ratio] in natural populations or common garden experiments across a total of 98 plant species. Intraspecific leaf N:P ratio and seed mass significantly decreased with latitude in natural populations. Conversely, the plant height decreased and SLA increased significantly with latitude of population origin in common garden experiments. However, less than a third of the investigated latitudinal transect studies also formally disentangled the effects of temperature from other environmental drivers which potentially hampers the translation from latitudinal effects into a temperature signal. Synthesis. Latitudinal gradients provide a methodological set-up to overcome the drawbacks of other observational and experimental warming methods. Our synthesis indicates that many life-history traits of plants vary with latitude but the translation of latitudinal clines into responses to temperature is a crucial step. Therefore, especially adaptive differentiation of populations and confounding environmental factors other than temperature need to be considered. More generally, integrated approaches of observational studies along temperature gradients, experimental methods and common garden experiments increasingly emerge as the way forward to further our understanding of species and community responses to climate warming.
  • De Pauw, Karen, et al. (författare)
  • Taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of understorey plants respond differently to environmental conditions in European forest edges
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Ecology. - 0022-0477 .- 1365-2745. ; 109:7, s. 2629-2648
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Forest biodiversity world-wide is affected by climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation, and today 20% of the forest area is located within 100 m of a forest edge. Still, forest edges harbour a substantial amount of terrestrial biodiversity, especially in the understorey. The functional and phylogenetic diversity of forest edges have never been studied simultaneously at a continental scale, in spite of their importance for the forests' functioning and for communities' resilience to future change.We assessed nine metrics of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of understorey plant communities in 225 plots spread along edge-to-interior gradients in deciduous forests across Europe. We then derived the relative effects and importance of edaphic, stand and landscape conditions on the diversity metrics.Here, we show that taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity metrics respond differently to environmental conditions. We report an increase in functional diversity in plots with stronger microclimatic buffering, in spite of their lower taxonomic species richness. Additionally, we found increased taxonomic species richness at the forest edge, but in forests with intermediate and high openness, these communities had decreased phylogenetic diversity.Functional and phylogenetic diversity revealed complementary and important insights in community assembly mechanisms. Several environmental filters were identified as potential drivers of the patterns, such as a colder macroclimate and less buffered microclimate for functional diversity. For phylogenetic diversity, edaphic conditions were more important. Interestingly, plots with lower soil pH had decreased taxonomic species richness, but led to increased phylogenetic diversity, challenging the phylogenetic niche conservatism concept.Synthesis. Taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of understorey communities in forest edges respond differently to environmental conditions, providing insight into different community assembly mechanisms and their interactions. Therefore, it is important to look beyond species richness with phylogenetic and functional diversity approaches when focusing on forest understorey biodiversity.
  • Govaert, Sanne, et al. (författare)
  • Edge influence on understorey plant communities depends on forest management
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Vegetation Science. - 1100-9233 .- 1654-1103. ; 31:2, s. 281-292
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Questions: Does the influence of forest edges on plant species richness and composition depend on forest management? Do forest specialists and generalists show contrasting patterns?Location: Mesic, deciduous forests across Europe.Methods: Vegetation surveys were performed in forests with three management types (unthinned, thinned 5-10 years ago and recently thinned) along a macroclimatic gradient from Italy to Norway. In each of 45 forests, we established five vegetation plots along a south-facing edge-to-interior gradient (n = 225). Forest specialist, generalist and total species richness, as well as evenness and proportion of specialists, were tested as a function of the management type and distance to the edge while accounting for several environmental variables (e.g. landscape composition and soil characteristics). Magnitude and distance of edge influence were estimated for species richness per management type.Results: Greatest total species richness was found in thinned forests. Edge influence on generalist plant species richness was contingent on the management type, with the smallest decrease in species richness from the edge-to-interior in unthinned forests. In addition, generalist richness increased with the proportion of forests in the surrounding landscape and decreased in forests dominated by tree species that cast more shade. Forest specialist species richness, however, was not affected by management type or distance to the edge, and only increased with pH and increasing proportion of forests in the landscape.Conclusions: Forest thinning affects the plant community composition along edge-to-interior transects of European forests, with richness of forest specialists and generalists responding differently. Therefore, future studies should take the forest management into account when interpreting edge-to-interior because both modify the microclimate, soil processes and deposition of polluting aerosols. This interaction is key to predict the effects of global change on forest plants in landscapes characterized by the mosaic of forest patches and agricultural land that is typical for Europe.
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