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  • Villa, Luisa L., et al. (författare)
  • Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 356:19, s. 1915-1927
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. A phase 3 trial was conducted to evaluate a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV-6/11/16/18) for the prevention of high-grade cervical lesions associated with HPV-16 and HPV-18. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned 12,167 women between the ages of 15 and 26 years to receive three doses of either HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine or placebo, administered at day 1, month 2, and month 6. The primary analysis was performed for a per-protocol susceptible population that included 5305 women in the vaccine group and 5260 in the placebo group who had no virologic evidence of infection with HPV-16 or HPV-18 through 1 month after the third dose (month 7). The primary composite end point was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, or cervical cancer related to HPV-16 or HPV-18. RESULTS: Subjects were followed for an average of 3 years after receiving the first dose of vaccine or placebo. Vaccine efficacy for the prevention of the primary composite end point was 98% (95.89% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 100) in the per-protocol susceptible population and 44% (95% CI, 26 to 58) in an intention-to-treat population of all women who had undergone randomization (those with or without previous infection). The estimated vaccine efficacy against all high-grade cervical lesions, regardless of causal HPV type, in this intention-to-treat population was 17% (95% CI, 1 to 31). CONCLUSIONS: In young women who had not been previously infected with HPV-16 or HPV-18, those in the vaccine group had a significantly lower occurrence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia related to HPV-16 or HPV-18 than did those in the placebo group.
  • Tajkumar, T, et al. (författare)
  • Cervical carcinoma and sexual behavior: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 15,461 women with cervical carcinoma and 29,164 women without cervical carcinoma from 21 epidemiological studies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 18:4, s. 1060-1069
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types cause most cervical carcinomas and are sexually transmitted. Sexual behavior therefore affects HPV exposure and its cancer sequelae. The International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer has combined data on lifetime number of sexual partners and age at first sexual intercourse from 21 studies, or groups of studies, including 10,773 women with invasive cervical carcinoma, 4,688 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ, and 29,164 women without cervical carcinoma. Relative risks for invasive cancer and CIN3 were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Risk of invasive cervical carcinoma increased with lifetime number of sexual partners (P for linear trend <0.001). The relative risk for > or =6 versus 1 partner, conditioned on age, study, and age at first intercourse, was 2.27 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.98-2.61] and increased to 2.78 (95% CI, 2.22-3.47) after additional conditioning on reproductive factors. The risk of invasive cervical carcinoma increased with earlier age at first intercourse (P for linear trend <0.001). The relative risk for age at first intercourse < or =14 versus > or =25 years, conditioned on age, study, and lifetime number of sexual partners was 3.52 (95% CI, 3.04-4.08), which decreased to 2.05 (95% CI, 1.54-2.73) after additional conditioning on reproductive factors. CIN3/carcinoma in situ showed a similar association with lifetime number of sexual partners; however, the association with age at first intercourse was weaker than for invasive carcinoma. Results should be interpreted with caution given the strong correlation between sexual and reproductive factors and the limited information on HPV status.
  • Rajkumar, T, et al. (författare)
  • Carcinoma of the cervix and tobacco smoking: Collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 13,541 women with carcinoma of the cervix and 23,017 women without carcinoma of the cervix from 23 epidemiological studies - International collaboration of epidemiological studies of cervical cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 118:6, s. 1481-1495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tobacco smoking has been classified as a cause of cervical cancer, but the effect of different patterns of smoking on risk is unclear. The International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer has brought together and combined individual data on 13,541 women with and 23,017 women without cervical carcinoma, from 23 epidemiological studies. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of carcinoma of the cervix in relation to tobacco smoking were calculated with stratification by study, age, sexual partners, age at first intercourse, oral contraceptive use and parity. Current smokers had a significantly increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix compared to never smokers (RR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.48-1.73), p < 0.001). There was increased risk for past smokers also, though to a lesser extent (RR = 1.12 (1.01-1.25)), and there was no clear trend with time since stopping smoking (p-trend = 0.6). There was no association between smoking and adenocarcinoma of the cervix (RR = 0.89 (0.74-1.06) and 0.89 (0.72-1.10) for current and past smokers respectively), and the differences between the RRs for smoking and squamous cell and adenocarcinoma were statistically significant (current smoking p < 0.001 and past smoking p = 0.01). In current smokers, the RR of squamous cell carcinoma increased with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day and also with younger age at starting smoking (p < 0.001 for each trend), but not with duration of smoking (p-trend = 0.3). Eight of the studies had tested women for cervical HPV-DNA, and in analyses restricted to women who tested positive, there was a significantly increased risk in current compared to never smokers for squamous cell carcinoma (RR = 1.95 (1.43-2.65)), but not for adenocarcinoma (RR = 1.06 (0.14-7.96)). In summary, smokers are at an increased risk of squamous cell but not of adenocarcinoma of the cervix. The risk of squamous cell carcinoma increases in current smokers with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and with younger age at starting smoking.
  • Paavonen, J, et al. (författare)
  • Baseline demographic characteristics of subjects enrolled in international quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) vaccine clinical trials
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Current Medical Research and Opinion. - : LibraPharm. - 1473-4877 .- 0300-7995. ; 24:6, s. 1623-1634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In Phase II/III trials, administration of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) (types 6/11/16/18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV6/11/16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and non-invasive cervical cancer in women aged 16-26 years who were naïve to these HPV types at enrollment. However, the makeup and extent of catch-up vaccination programs among young women is unclear, because a proportion of this population will likely already have been exposed to one or more vaccine-HPV-types. OBJECTIVE: Herein we analyze baseline data from the quadrivalent HPV vaccine clinical trial program to investigate variables which may help shape catch-up vaccine implementation policies. METHODS: Female adolescents and young adults aged 16-26 years were randomized into five clinical trials. Baseline data regarding demographics, sexual history, pregnancy history, and other characteristics were collected at enrollment. At the baseline gynecological examination during enrollment, specimens were obtained for Pap testing. Swabs of external genital, lateral vaginal, and cervical sites for HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing were taken, and serum samples were obtained for HPV serology testing. Regional analyses of data were conducted. RESULTS: Overall, 72% of subjects enrolled worldwide were naïve by both serology and PCR to all four vaccine HPV types. Few subjects were seropositive and/or PCR positive for more than two vaccine-related HPV types. Of all subjects with HSIL at enrollment, 78% were positive to at least one vaccine-related HPV type at enrollment. Regional differences in HPV and STD prevalence were evident. Study limitations included under-representation of women with >/=4 sexual partners and possible underestimation of prior HPV exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that sexually active 16-26 year-old women with
  • Scott, David R, et al. (författare)
  • Use of human papillomavirus DNA testing to compare equivocal cervical cytologic interpretations in the United States, Scandinavia, and the United Kingdom
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1097-0142 .- 0008-543X. ; 96:1, s. 14-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing may be useful in clarifying equivocal cervical cytologic interpretations. One application might be to standardize the meaning of equivocal interpretations from laboratories in various regions. Because international differences may be particularly marked, international comparisons of emerging data will require clear translations of "equivocal" and similar terms. METHODS: To perform a three-country comparison, the authors selected a morphologically diverse set of 188 conventional Papanicolaou tests initially classified as "squamous atypia" from a study of more than 20,000 women in Portland, Oregon (1989-1990). Previously, five U.S. expert cytopathologists independently interpreted the slides with screening cytotechnologists' marks in place. For this comparison, one British and two Scandinavian reviewers involved in HPV research reviewed the slides after original marks had been removed. The authors compared all eight reviewers' classifications of negative, equivocal, or abnormal in a series of pairwise comparisons using the kappa statistic. They then compared cytologic interpretations with HPV DNA testing. RESULTS: Oncogenic HPV DNA detection was significantly associated with increasingly abnormal interpretations for each reader. The British reader tended to rate tests as more abnormal than the American pathologists did, whereas the Scandinavians tended to rate tests as more normal. Reference to the HPV DNA standard clarified the tendency of readers to render systematically more or less severe interpretations. For example, the Scandinavian cytologists discounted subtle (often HPV-associated) changes in favor of cytologic certainty, making HPV triage of equivocal tests less applicable there. CONCLUSIONS: International research on cytopathology, particularly on the possible uses of HPV DNA testing, will require calibration of local cytologic definitions.
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