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Sökning: WFRF:(Dinkler Lisa)

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1.
  • Dobrescu, Sandra Rydberg, et al. (författare)
  • Anorexia nervosa : 30-year outcome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry. - : Cambridge University Press. - 0007-1250 .- 1472-1465. ; 216:2, s. 97-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Little is known about the long-term outcome of anorexia nervosa.Aims To study the 30-year outcome of adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa.Method All 4291 individuals born in 1970 and attending eighth grade in 1985 in Gothenburg, Sweden were screened for anorexia nervosa. A total of 24 individuals (age cohort for anorexia nervosa) were pooled with 27 individuals with anorexia nervosa (identified through community screening) who were born in 1969 and 1971-1974. The 51 individuals with anorexia nervosa and 51 school- and gender-matched controls were followed prospectively and examined at mean ages of 16, 21, 24, 32 and 44. Psychiatric disorders, health-related quality of life and general outcome were assessed.Results At the 30-year follow-up 96% of participants agreed to participate. There was no mortality. Of the participants, 19% had an eating disorder diagnosis (6% anorexia nervosa, 2% binge-eating disorder, 11% other specified feeding or eating disorder); 38% had other psychiatric diagnoses; and 64% had full eating disorder symptom recovery, i.e. free of all eating disorder criteria for 6 consecutive months. During the elapsed 30 years, participants had an eating disorder for 10 years, on average, and 23% did not receive psychiatric treatment. Good outcome was predicted by later age at onset among individuals with adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa and premorbid perfectionism.Conclusions This long-term follow-up study reflects the course of adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa and has shown a favourable outcome regarding mortality and full symptom recovery. However, one in five had a chronic eating disorder.
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2.
  • Brimo, Katarzyna, et al. (författare)
  • The co-occurrence of neurodevelopmental problems in dyslexia
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Dyslexia. - 1076-9242.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The primary aim of this study was to explore the overlaps between dyslexia and a range of neurodevelopmental disorders and problems (NDPs), specifically symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, atypical sensory perception and developmental coordination disorder. Capitalizing on a population-based sample of twins, secondary aims included estimating the heritability of dyslexia and reporting on the measurement characteristics of the scale used to assess dyslexia. A telephone interview regarding symptoms of dyslexia and other NDPs was conducted with parents of 1,688 nine-year-old twins. The prevalence and the heritability of dyslexia were estimated at 8 and 52%, respectively. The boy: girl ratio was 1.5:1. Results revealed that there was more than an eightfold increase in (diagnostic proxy) NDPs prevalence in the dyslexia group as compared to typical readers. Quantitatively measured symptoms of inattention, oral language problems and atypical sensory perception significantly predicted dyslexia status in a multivariate analysis. By contrast, ASD-related inflexibility was inversely associated with dyslexia in the multivariate model. In sum, dyslexia often overlaps with other NDPs. The current study provides new knowledge supporting the position to move beyond isolated diagnostic categories into behavioural profiles of co-occurring problems when trying to understand the pattern of strengths and needs in individuals with dyslexia.
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3.
  • Dinkler, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Anorexia nervosa and autism: a prospective twin cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0021-9630 .- 1469-7610.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be phenotypically and etiologically linked. However, due to the absence of prospective studies, it remains unclear whether the elevation of autistic traits in AN is evident in early childhood. Here, we prospectively investigated autistic traits before and after the first diagnosis of AN. Methods: In a population-based sample of 5,987 individuals (52.4% female) from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, parents reported autistic traits at ages 9 and 18. AN and ASD diagnoses were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register. In addition, AN diagnoses were ascertained by parent-reported treatment for AN. We compared whether individuals with and without AN differed in autistic traits before the first diagnosis of AN (age 9) and after the first diagnosis of AN (age 18). Results: We did not find evidence for elevated autistic traits in 9-year-old children later diagnosed with AN. At age 18, however, there was a marked elevation in restricted/repetitive behavior and interests, but only in the subgroup of individuals with acute AN. A less pronounced elevation was observed for social communication problems. Conclusions: Coping strategies in individuals with ASD and the somewhat different female ASD phenotype may explain why we did not find elevated autistic traits in children who later developed AN. Alternatively, it is possible that elevated autistic traits were not present prior to the onset of AN, thus questioning the previously reported elevated prevalence of ASD in AN. Future studies should use tailored measurements in order to investigate whether autistic traits in individuals with AN are best conceptualized as an epiphenomenon of the acute AN phase or whether these symptoms indeed represent ASD as a clinically verifiable neurodevelopmental disorder.
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4.
  • Dinkler, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Association of etiological factors across the extreme end and continuous variation in disordered eating in female Swedish twins
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 51:5, s. 760-760
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Accumulating evidence suggests that many psychiatric disorders etiologically represent the extreme end of dimensionally distributed features rather than distinct entities. The extent to which this applies to eating disorders (EDs) is unknown. Methods We investigated if there is similar etiology in (a) the continuous distribution of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), (b) the extremes of EDI-2 score, and (c) registered ED diagnoses, in 1481 female twin pairs at age 18 years (born 1992–1999). EDI-2 scores were self-reported at age 18. ED diagnoses were identified through the Swedish National Patient Register, parent-reported treatment and/or self-reported purging behavior of a frequency and duration consistent with DSM-IV criteria. We differentiated between anorexia nervosa (AN) and other EDs. Results The heritability of the EDI-2 score was 0.65 (95% CI 0.61–0.68). The group heritabilities in DeFries–Fulker extremes analyses were consistent over different percentile-based extreme groups [0.59 (95% CI 0.37–0.81) to 0.65 (95% CI 0.55–0.75)]. Similarly, the heritabilities in liability threshold models were consistent over different levels of severity. In joint categorical-continuous models, the twin-based genetic correlation was 0.52 (95% CI 0.39–0.65) between EDI-2 score and diagnoses of other EDs, and 0.26 (95% CI 0.08–0.42) between EDI-2 score and diagnoses of AN. The non-shared environmental correlations were 0.52 (95% CI 0.32–0.70) and 0.60 (95% CI 0.38–0.79), respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that some EDs can partly be conceptualized as the extreme manifestation of continuously distributed ED features. AN, however, might be more distinctly genetically demarcated from ED features in the general population than other EDs.
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5.
  • Dinkler, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Maltreatment-associated neurodevelopmental disorders: a co-twin control analysis.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 1469-7610. ; 58:6, s. 691-701
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Childhood maltreatment (CM) is strongly associated with psychiatric disorders in childhood and adulthood. Previous findings suggest that the association between CM and psychiatric disorders is partly causal and partly due to familial confounding, but few studies have investigated the mechanisms behind the association between CM and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Our objective was to determine whether maltreated children have an elevated number of NDDs and whether CM is a risk factor for an increased NDD 'load' and increased NDD symptoms when controlling for familial effects.We used a cross-sectional sample from a population-representative Swedish twin study, comprising 8,192 nine-year-old twins born in Sweden between 1997 and 2005. CM was defined as parent-reported exposure to emotional abuse/neglect, physical neglect, physical abuse, and/or sexual abuse. Four NDDs were measured with the Autism-Tics, AD/HD, and other comorbidities inventory.Maltreated children had a greater mean number of NDDs than nonmaltreated children. In a co-twin control design, CM-discordant monozygotic twins did not differ significantly for their number of NDDs, suggesting that CM is not associated with an increased load of NDDs when genetic and shared environmental factors are taken into account. However, CM was associated with a small increase in symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder in CM-discordant MZ twins, although most of the covariance of CM with NDD symptoms was explained by common genetic effects.Maltreated children are at higher risk of having multiple NDDs. Our findings are, however, not consistent with the notion that CM causes the increased NDD load in maltreated children. Maltreated children should receive a full neurodevelopmental assessment, and clinicians should be aware that children with multiple NDDs are at higher risk of maltreatment.
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6.
  • Fernell, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Paediatric Acute onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome: Exploratory study finds no evidence of HLA class II association but high rate of autoimmunity in first-degree relatives
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim Paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is defined by an acute onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or eating restrictions and at least two other severe neuropsychiatric symptoms. The condition is suspected to have an immune-mediated pathophysiology, but reliable biomarkers have not been identified. Methods We hypothesised that PANS, like narcolepsy, might have a human leucocyte antigen (HLA) association, as found in 95% of children developing narcolepsy after H1N1 immunisation. Low resolution genotyping of the MHC class II antigens HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 was performed using two different PCR-based methods. In addition, parents were interviewed regarding a detailed family history of autoimmune diseases in first-degree relatives. A total of 18 children, aged 5-14 (mean 8.2) years at onset of PANS met symptom criteria. Results No evident association between PANS and the specific HLA alleles examined was observed. In first-degree relatives of 10 of the 18 children, an autoimmune disease had been diagnosed, and three of the 18 children themselves had an autoimmune disease. Conclusion No HLA allele association such as seen in children with narcolepsy after H1N1 immunisation could be confirmed in this group of children with PANS. However, more than half the group had a first-degree relative with a diagnosed autoimmune disease.
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7.
  • Gajwani, Ruchika, et al. (författare)
  • Mania symptoms in a Swedish longitudinal population study: The roles of childhood trauma and neurodevelopmental disorders.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of affective disorders. - 1573-2517. ; 280:Part A, s. 450-456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adult psychiatric disorders are associated with both childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs) and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). CTEs and NDDs frequently co-occur in childhood, but their combined risk effect on the emergence of juvenile mania symptoms has not yet been examined.In a population-representative Swedish twin study, CTEs and NDDs were assessed in 3,348 nine-year old twins born between 1998 and 2001, and treated as dichotomous predictors (any CTEs, any NDDs). Follow-up data were gathered at age 15 through parental reports of mania symptoms, yielding a symptom count score.Both CTEs and NDDs at age 9 contributed uniquely to an increase in mania symptoms at age 15. Children with both risk factors had 1.6 times the rate of mania symptoms as children with CTEs-only (Incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.63, 95% CI 1.37-1.93), and 1.3 times the rate of mania symptoms as children with NDDs-only (IRR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.50). There was no evidence for an interactive effect of CTEs and NDDs. NDDs showed a trend towards having a larger effect on mania symptoms than CTEs (NDDs-only vs. CTEs-only: IRR 1.29, 95% CI 0.99-1.68).Although it is a strength of the study that the data on exposures and outcome were collected prospectively, parental recall of CTEs was required and CTEs may be under-reported.NDDs are at least as important as CTEs in the development of mania symptoms, and their risk is additive. Those with a history of both CTEs and NDDs should be monitored closely for the development of more severe psychiatric presentations.
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8.
  • Dinkler, Lisa (författare)
  • Restrictive eating disorders: aetiological, epidemiological and neurodevelopmental aspects
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Restrictive Eating Disorders (EDs), including Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN), are characterised by severely restricted food intake, commonly leading to substantial weight loss and significantly low weight, and the need for nutritional supplementation. The overarching aim of this thesis was to elucidate specific aetiological, epidemiological, and neurodevelopmental aspects of ARFID and AN, including the genetic aetiology of AN, the link between AN and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the prevalence of ARFID, and the comorbidity of ARFID with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Studies I and II were based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, making use of parent- and/or child-reported survey data and clinical diagnoses from the Swedish National Patient Register. Using twin modelling, Study I examined whether adolescent-onset EDs (excluding ARFID) can be viewed aetiologically as the extreme manifestation of continuous variation in ED traits in the population (e.g., drive for thinness). Genetic factors influencing continuous variation of ED traits were less associated with AN than with other EDs, suggesting that EDs other than AN are on an aetiological continuum with ED traits, while AN is more genetically demarcated. Considering the previously observed overrepresentation of autistic traits in individuals with AN, Study II prospectively examined whether autistic traits in AN are already present in childhood. Individuals later diagnosed with AN did not show elevated autistic traits at age 9. At age 18, autistic traits were elevated in girls with acute AN, but not in girls with a history of AN. Potential elevations of autistic traits in childhood might have been concealed by coping strategies and the different/less overt female ASD phenotype. Using a novel experimental design, Study III examined the ability and strategy to recognise facial emotional expressions—often impaired in ASD—in women recovered from AN who were part of the 30-year follow-up in a Swedish case-control study. Women recovered from AN without ASD did not have deficits in emotion recognition, suggesting that impairments might be limited to the acute AN phase and/or the ASD subgroup. Studies IV and V were based on a parent-reported screening tool for ARFID developed by our group, applied in a sub-cohort of 4-7-year-old children from the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Study IV aimed to estimate the prevalence of ARFID and found a point prevalence of ~1%. ARFID was equally common in boys and girls. Using ICD-11 diagnostic criteria resulted in a higher prevalence than using DSM-5 criteria. Taking advantage of additional parent-reported data, Study V found that children with ARFID had an elevated risk of a broadly atypical/delayed neurodevelopment and a 3-4 times increased likelihood of being diagnosed with NDDs. In summary, this thesis showed that AN might have a different aetiology than other adolescent-onset EDs, and that prospective studies are important to help disentangle the relationship between AN and ASD. Contrary to AN, ARFID is associated with increased risk for a range of neurodevelopmental problems/NDDs. Future studies should investigate whether ARFID in young children might be more strongly associated with NDDs than with later-onset EDs.
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9.
  • Dinkler, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Visual scanning during emotion recognition in long-term recovered anorexia nervosa: An eye-tracking study.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0276-3478 .- 1098-108X. ; 52:6, s. 691-700
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To examine Facial Emotion Recognition (FER) and visual scanning behavior (eye-tracking) during FER in women long-term recovered from teenage-onset anorexia nervosa (recAN) with and without autism spectrum disorder (±ASD) and age-matched comparison women (COMP), using a sensitive design with facial emotion expressions at varying intensities in order to approximate real social contexts.Fifty-seven 38-47-year-old women (26 recAN of whom six with ASD, 31 COMP) participated in the study. They completed a non-verbal FER task, consisting of matching basic emotions at different levels of expression intensity with full emotional expressions. Accuracy, response time and visual scanning behavior were measured.There were no differences between recAN-ASD and COMP in FER accuracy and visual scanning behavior during FER, including eye viewing and hyperscanning. In an exploratory analysis, recAN+ASD were more accurate than recAN-ASD in identifying expressions at low intensity, but not at medium or high expression intensity. Accuracy was not associated with the extent of attention to the eye region.Our data indicate that women long-term recovered from adolescent-onset AN do not have deficits in basic FER ability and visual scanning behavior during FER. However, the presence of comorbid ASD might affect face processing in recovered AN. Future studies investigating basic FER in acute and recovered AN and other conditions need to ensure that the stimuli used are sensitive enough to detect potential deficits.
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10.
  • Johnson, Mats, 1956, et al. (författare)
  • No neurochemical evidence of neuronal injury or glial activation in children with Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome: An explorative pilot study.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry. - 1814-1412. ; , s. 1-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Summary Objective: Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) is characterized by an acute onset of obsessive compulsive disorder, combined with at least two other neuropsychiatric symptoms with acute onset. Diagnostic criteria also require that no specific medical etiology is identified. Although there are no verified etiological biomarkers, PANS is assumed to be a neuroinflammatory disorder with a possible autoimmune etiology. Neurochemical markers such as neurofilament light (NfL, a neuronal injury marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocytic activation marker) have not been published for this patient group. Method: Blood samples from 17 children meeting diagnostic criteria for PANS, after assessment at a child neuropsychiatry clinic were analysed for serum concentrations of NfL and GFAP. Ten age-matched children without any neurological or psychiatric disorder served as a comparison group. Results: No difference was found in mean NfL and mean GFAP serum concentrations between children with PANS and controls. Conclusion: Neuronal injury and astrocyte activation do not seem to be a major event in PANS. The study group was small, and even if findings may be reassuring for parents and patients, they should be interpreted with caution and verified in larger cohort and possibly with other markers in both serum and CSF.
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