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Sökning: WFRF:(Dittrich Maria)

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  • Debette, Stéphanie, et al. (författare)
  • Common variation in PHACTR1 is associated with susceptibility to cervical artery dissection
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 47, s. 78-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a mural hematoma in a carotid or vertebral artery, is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults although relatively uncommon in the general population (incidence of 2.6/100,000 per year)1. Minor cervical traumas, infection, migraine and hypertension are putative risk factors1–3, and inverse associations with obesity and hypercholesterolemia are described3,4. No confirmed genetic susceptibility factors have been identified using candidate gene approaches5. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1 1,393 CeAD cases and 1 14,416 controls. The rs9349379[G] allele (PHACTR1) was associated with lower CeAD risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–0.82; P = 4.46 × 1 10−10), with confirmation in independent follow-up samples (659 CeAD cases and 2,648 controls; P = 3.91 1 × 1 10−3; combined P = 1 1.00 × 1 10−1111). The rs9349379[G] allele was previously shown to be associated with lower risk of migraine and increased risk of myocardial infarction6–9. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this pleiotropy might provide important information on the biological underpinnings of these disabling conditions.
  • Dittrich, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • ESMO / ASCO Recommendations for a Global Curriculum in Medical Oncology Edition 2016
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ESMO OPEN. - 2059-7029. ; 1:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) are publishing a new edition of the ESMO/ ASCO Global Curriculum (GC) thanks to contribution of 64 ESMOappointed and 32 ASCO-appointed authors. First published in 2004 and updated in 2010, the GC edition 2016 answers to the need for updated recommendations for the training of physicians in medical oncology by defining the standard to be fulfilled to qualify as medical oncologists. At times of internationalisation of healthcare and increased mobility of patients and physicians, the GC aims to provide state-of-the-art cancer care to all patients wherever they live. Recent progress in the field of cancer research has indeed resulted in diagnostic and therapeutic innovations such as targeted therapies as a standard therapeutic approach or personalised cancer medicine specialised training for medical oncology trainees. Thus, several new chapters on technical contents such as molecular pathology, translational research or molecular imaging and on conceptual attitudes towards human principles like genetic counselling or survivorship have been integrated in the GC. The GC edition 2016 consists of 12 sections with 17 subsections, 44 chapters and 35 subchapters, respectively. Besides renewal in its contents, the GC underwent a principal formal change taking into consideration modern didactic principles. It is presented in a template-based format that subcategorises the detailed outcome requirements into learning objectives, awareness, knowledge and skills. Consecutive steps will be those of harmonising and implementing teaching and assessment strategies.
  • Tin, Adrienne, et al. (författare)
  • Target genes, variants, tissues and transcriptional pathways influencing human serum urate levels
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:10, s. 1459-1474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.
  • Wuttke, Matthias, et al. (författare)
  • A catalog of genetic loci associated with kidney function from analyses of a million individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:6, s. 957-972
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through transancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these,147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.
  • Jenny, Jean Philippe, et al. (författare)
  • Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: Rapid degradation of the world's large lakes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Great Lakes Research. - : Elsevier BV. - 0380-1330. ; 46:4, s. 686-702
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2020 The Authors Large lakes of the world are habitats for diverse species, including endemic taxa, and are valuable resources that provide humanity with many ecosystem services. They are also sentinels of global and local change, and recent studies in limnology and paleolimnology have demonstrated disturbing evidence of their collective degradation in terms of depletion of resources (water and food), rapid warming and loss of ice, destruction of habitats and ecosystems, loss of species, and accelerating pollution. Large lakes are particularly exposed to anthropogenic and climatic stressors. The Second Warning to Humanity provides a framework to assess the dangers now threatening the world's large lake ecosystems and to evaluate pathways of sustainable development that are more respectful of their ongoing provision of services. Here we review current and emerging threats to the large lakes of the world, including iconic examples of lake management failures and successes, from which we identify priorities and approaches for future conservation efforts. The review underscores the extent of lake resource degradation, which is a result of cumulative perturbation through time by long-term human impacts combined with other emerging stressors. Decades of degradation of large lakes have resulted in major challenges for restoration and management and a legacy of ecological and economic costs for future generations. Large lakes will require more intense conservation efforts in a warmer, increasingly populated world to achieve sustainable, high-quality waters. This Warning to Humanity is also an opportunity to highlight the value of a long-term lake observatory network to monitor and report on environmental changes in large lake ecosystems.
  • Kaczmarczyk, Lech, et al. (författare)
  • Slc1a3-2A-CreERT2 mice reveal unique features of Bergmann glia and augment a growing collection of Cre drivers and effectors in the 129S4 genetic background
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Research. - 2045-2322. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic variation is a primary determinant of phenotypic diversity. In laboratory mice, genetic variation can be a serious experimental confounder, and thus minimized through inbreeding. However, generalizations of results obtained with inbred strains must be made with caution, especially when working with complex phenotypes and disease models. Here we compared behavioral characteristics of C57Bl/6-the strain most widely used in biomedical research-with those of 129S4. In contrast to 129S4, C57Bl/6 demonstrated high within-strain and intra-litter behavioral hyperactivity. Although high consistency would be advantageous, the majority of disease models and transgenic tools are in C57Bl/6. We recently established six Cre driver lines and two Cre effector lines in 129S4. To augment this collection, we genetically engineered a Cre line to study astrocytes in 129S4. It was validated with two Cre effector lines: calcium indicator gCaMP5g-tdTomato and RiboTag-a tool widely used to study cell type-specific translatomes. These reporters are in different genomic loci, and in both the Cre was functional and astrocyte-specific. We found that calcium signals lasted longer and had a higher amplitude in cortical compared to hippocampal astrocytes, genes linked to a single neurodegenerative disease have highly divergent expression patterns, and that ribosome proteins are non-uniformly expressed across brain regions and cell types.
  • Klimešová, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma channel formation in NIR laser-irradiated carrier gas from an aerosol nanoparticle injector
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019, The Author(s). Aerosol nanoparticle injectors are fundamentally important for experiments where container-free sample handling is needed to study isolated nanoparticles. The injector consists of a nebuliser, a differential pumping unit, and an aerodynamic lens to create and deliver a focused particle beam to the interaction point inside a vacuum chamber. The tightest focus of the particle beam is close to the injector tip. The density of the focusing carrier gas is high at this point. We show here how this gas interacts with a near infrared laser pulse (800 nm wavelength, 120 fs pulse duration) at intensities approaching 1016 Wcm−2. We observe acceleration of gas ions to kinetic energies of 100s eV and study their energies as a function of the carrier gas density. Our results indicate that field ionisation by the intense near-infrared laser pulse opens up a plasma channel behind the laser pulse. The observations can be understood in terms of a Coulomb explosion of the created underdense plasma channel. The results can be used to estimate gas background in experiments with the injector and they open up opportunities for a new class of studies on electron and ion dynamics in nanoparticles surrounded by a low-density gas.
  • Oelze, Tim, et al. (författare)
  • THz streak camera performance for single-shot characterization of XUV pulses with complex temporal structures
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Optics Express. - : OPTICAL SOC AMER. - 1094-4087 .- 1094-4087. ; 28:14, s. 20686-20703
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The THz-field-driven streak camera has proven to be a powerful diagnostic-technique that enables the shot-to-shot characterization of the duration and the arrival time jitter of free electron laser (FEL) pulses. Here we investigate the performance of three computational approaches capable to determine the duration of FEL pulses with complex temporal structures from single-shot measurements of up to three simultaneously recorded spectra. We use numerically simulated FEL pulses in order to validate the accuracy of the pulse length retrieval in average as well as in a single-shot mode. We discuss requirements for the THz field strength in order to achieve reliable results and compare our numerical study with the analysis of experimental data that were obtained at the FEL in Hamburg - FLASH. (C) 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement
  • Paulo, Carlos, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of phosphorus in growth media on biomineralization and cell surface properties of marine cyanobacteria synechococcus
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Geosciences (Switzerland). - : MDPI AG. - 2076-3263. ; 8:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Through geological time, cyanobacterial picoplankton have impacted the global carbon cycle by sequestrating CO 2 and forming authigenic carbonate minerals. Various studies have emphasized the cyanobacterial cell envelopes as nucleation sites for calcium carbonate formation. Little is known, however, about how environmental conditions (e.g., nutrient content) trigger a cell surface and its properties and, consequently, influence biomineralization. Our study aims to understand how phosphorus (P) concentration impacts the properties of cell surfaces and cell–mineral interactions. Changes to the surface properties of marine Synechococcus strains grown under various P conditions were characterized by potentiometric titrations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Biomineralization experiments were performed using cyanobacterial cells, which were grown under different P concentrations and exposed to solutions slightly oversaturated with respect to calcium carbonate. We observed the changes induced by different P conditions in the macromolecular composition of the cyanobacteria cell envelope and its consequences for biomineralization. The modified properties of cell surfaces were linked to carbonate precipitation rates and mineral morphology from biomineralization experiments. Our analysis shows that the increase of phosphoryl groups and surface charge, as well as the relative proportion of polysaccharides and proteins, can impact carbonate precipitation by picocyanobacteria.
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