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Sökning: WFRF:(Dores Graça M.)

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1.
  • Hill, Deirdre A., et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer risk following radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma : modification by other risk factors
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Blood. - 0006-4971 .- 1528-0020. ; 106:10, s. 3358-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The importance of genetic and other risk factors in the development of breast cancer after radiotherapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has not been determined. We analyzed data from a breast cancer case-control study (105 patients, 266 control subjects) conducted among 3 817 survivors of HL diagnosed at age 30 years or younger in 6 population-based cancer registries. Odds ratios (ORs) and excess relative risks (ERRs) were calculated using conditional regression. Women who received RT exposure (> or = 5 Gy radiation dose to the breast) had a 2.7-fold increased breast cancer risk (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-5.2), compared with those given less than 5 Gy. RT exposure (> or = 5 Gy) was associated with an OR of 0.8 (95% CI, 0.2-3.4) among women with a first- or second-degree family history of breast or ovarian cancer, and 5.8 (95% CI, 2.1-16.3) among all other women (interaction P = .03). History of a live birth appeared to increase the breast cancer risk associated with RT among women not treated with ovarian-damaging therapies. Breast cancer risk following RT varied little according to other factors. The additional increased relative risk of breast cancer after RT for HL is unlikely to be larger among women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer than among other women.
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2.
  • Travis, Lois B, et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer following radiotherapy and chemotherapy among young women with Hodgkin disease
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 290:4, s. 465-475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Second cancer is the leading cause of death in long-term survivors of Hodgkin disease (HD), with exceptionally high risks of breast cancer among women treated at a young age. Quantitative associations between radiotherapy dose delivered to the breast and administered chemotherapy have not been reported to date in large series, nor has the influence of ovarian exposures on subsequent risk.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the long-term risk of breast cancer associated with use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy to treat young women with HD.DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: Matched case-control study of breast cancer within a cohort of 3817 female 1-year survivors of HD diagnosed at age 30 years or younger, between January 1, 1965, and December 31, 1994, and within 6 population-based cancer registries. The study was conducted March 1, 1996, through September 30, 1998.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk (RR) of breast cancer associated with radiation dose delivered to site of breast cancer or to ovaries and with cumulative dose of alkylating agents.RESULTS: Breast cancer occurred in 105 patients with HD who were matched to 266 patients with HD but without breast cancer. A radiation dose of 4 Gy or more delivered to the breast was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-8.2) increased risk, compared with the risk in patients who received lower doses and no alkylating agents. Risk increased to 8-fold (95% CI, 2.6-26.4) with a dose of more than 40 Gy (P<.001 for trend). Radiation risk did not vary appreciably by age at exposure or reproductive history. Increased risks persisted for 25 or more years following radiotherapy (RR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.5-16.5; P =.03 for trend with dose). Treatment with alkylating agents alone resulted in a reduced risk (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.2-2.0) of breast cancer, and combined alkylating agents and radiotherapy in a 1.4-fold (95% CI, 0.6-3.5) increased risk. Risk of breast cancer decreased with increasing number of alkylating agent cycles (P =.003 for trend). Risk also was low (RR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.1) among women who received 5 Gy or more delivered to ovaries compared with those who received lower doses.CONCLUSIONS: Hormonal stimulation appears important for the development of radiation-induced breast cancer, as evidenced by the reduced risk associated with ovarian damage from alkylating agents or radiation. The high radiation-related risk, which did not diminish at the highest doses or the longest follow-up, however, suggests the need for lifetime surveillance and programs of patient and public awareness.
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3.
  • Travis, Lois B., et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative absolute breast cancer risk for young women treated for Hodgkin lymphoma
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 97:19, s. 1428-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Many women develop breast cancer after treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) at a young age. We estimated this future risk, taking into account age and calendar year of HL diagnosis, HL treatment information, population breast cancer incidence rates, and competing causes of death. METHODS: Relative risks of breast cancer for categories defined by radiation dose to the chest (0, 20- < 40 Gy, or > or = 40 Gy) and use of alkylating agents (yes or no) were estimated from a case-control study conducted within an international population-based cohort of 3817 female 1-year survivors of HL diagnosed at age 30 years or younger from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 1994. To compute cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer, we used modified standardized incidence ratios to relate cohort breast cancer risks to those in the general population, enabling application of population-based breast cancer rates, and we allowed for competing risks by using population-based mortality rates in female HL survivors. RESULTS: Cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer increased with age at end of follow-up, time since HL diagnosis, and radiation dose. For an HL survivor who was treated at age 25 years with a chest radiation dose of at least 40 Gy without alkylating agents, estimated cumulative absolute risks of breast cancer by age 35, 45, and 55 years were 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9% to 2.1%), 11.1% (95% CI = 7.4% to 16.3%), and 29.0% (95% CI = 20.2% to 40.1%), respectively. Cumulative absolute risks were lower in women treated with alkylating agents. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer projections varied considerably by type of HL therapy, time since HL diagnosis, and age at end of follow-up. These estimates are applicable to HL survivors treated with regimens of the past and can be used to counsel such patients and plan management and preventive strategies. Projections should be used with caution, however, in patients treated with more recent approaches, including limited-field radiotherapy and/or ovary-sparing chemotherapy.
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4.
  • Worrillow, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphic MLH1 and risk of cancer after methylating chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 45:3, s. 142-146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and objective: Methylating agents are effective chemotherapy agents for Hodgkin lymphoma, but are associated with the development of second primary cancers. Cytotoxicity of methylating agents is mediated primarily by the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system. Loss of MLH1, a major component of DNA MMR, results in tolerance to the cytotoxic effects of methylating agents and persistence of mutagenised cells at high risk of malignant transformation. We hypothesised that a common substitution in the basal promoter of MLH1 (position-93, rs1800734) modifies the risk of cancer after methylating chemotherapy. Methods: 133 patients who developed cancer following chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (n = 133), 420 patients diagnosed with de novo myeloid leukaemia, 242 patients diagnosed with primary Hodgkin lymphoma, and 1177 healthy controls were genotyped for the MLH1 -93 polymorphism by allelic discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cancer risk by MLH1 -93 polymorphism status, and stratified by previous exposure to methylating chemotherapy, were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Carrier frequency of the MLH1 -93 variant was higher in patients who developed therapy related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) (75.0%, n = 12) or breast cancer (53.3%. n = 15) after methylating chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma compared to patients without previous methylating exposure (t-AML, 30.4%, n = 69; breast cancer patients, 27.2%, n = 22). The MLH1 -93 variant allele was also over-represented in t-AML cases when compared to de novo AML cases (36.9%, n = 420) and healthy controls (36.3%, n = 952), and was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing t-AML (odds ratio 5.31, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 20.15), but only in patients previously treated with a methylating agent. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that the common polymorphism at position - 93 in the core promoter of MLH1 defines a risk allele for the development of cancer after methylating chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma. However, replication of this finding in larger studies is suggested.
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