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Sökning: WFRF:(Dreval A.)

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1.
  • Joffrin, E., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:11
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.
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4.
  • Labit, B., et al. (författare)
  • Dependence on plasma shape and plasma fueling for small edge-localized mode regimes in TCV and ASDEX Upgrade
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved. Within the EUROfusion MST1 work package, a series of experiments has been conducted on AUG and TCV devices to disentangle the role of plasma fueling and plasma shape for the onset of small ELM regimes. On both devices, small ELM regimes with high confinement are achieved if and only if two conditions are fulfilled at the same time. Firstly, the plasma density at the separatrix must be large enough (ne,sep/nG ∼ 0.3), leading to a pressure profile flattening at the separatrix, which stabilizes type-I ELMs. Secondly, the magnetic configuration has to be close to a double null (DN), leading to a reduction of the magnetic shear in the extreme vicinity of the separatrix. As a consequence, its stabilizing effect on ballooning modes is weakened.
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5.
  • Coda, S., et al. (författare)
  • Physics research on the TCV tokamak facility: From conventional to alternative scenarios and beyond
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The research program of the TCV tokamak ranges from conventional to advanced-tokamak scenarios and alternative divertor configurations, to exploratory plasmas driven by theoretical insight, exploiting the device's unique shaping capabilities. Disruption avoidance by real-time locked mode prevention or unlocking with electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) was thoroughly documented, using magnetic and radiation triggers. Runaway generation with high-Z noble-gas injection and runaway dissipation by subsequent Ne or Ar injection were studied for model validation. The new 1 MW neutral beam injector has expanded the parameter range, now encompassing ELMy H-modes in an ITER-like shape and nearly non-inductive H-mode discharges sustained by electron cyclotron and neutral beam current drive. In the H-mode, the pedestal pressure increases modestly with nitrogen seeding while fueling moves the density pedestal outwards, but the plasma stored energy is largely uncorrelated to either seeding or fueling. High fueling at high triangularity is key to accessing the attractive small edge-localized mode (type-II) regime. Turbulence is reduced in the core at negative triangularity, consistent with increased confinement and in accord with global gyrokinetic simulations. The geodesic acoustic mode, possibly coupled with avalanche events, has been linked with particle flow to the wall in diverted plasmas. Detachment, scrape-off layer transport, and turbulence were studied in L- and H-modes in both standard and alternative configurations (snowflake, super-X, and beyond). The detachment process is caused by power 'starvation' reducing the ionization source, with volume recombination playing only a minor role. Partial detachment in the H-mode is obtained with impurity seeding and has shown little dependence on flux expansion in standard single-null geometry. In the attached L-mode phase, increasing the outer connection length reduces the in-out heat-flow asymmetry. A doublet plasma, featuring an internal X-point, was achieved successfully, and a transport barrier was observed in the mantle just outside the internal separatrix. In the near future variable-configuration baffles and possibly divertor pumping will be introduced to investigate the effect of divertor closure on exhaust and performance, and 3.5 MW ECRH and 1 MW neutral beam injection heating will be added.
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6.
  • Valassi, E., et al. (författare)
  • High mortality within 90 days of diagnosis in patients with Cushing's syndrome: results from the ERCUSYN registry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643. ; 181:5, s. 461-472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) have increased mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes and time of death in a large cohort of patients with CS and to establish factors associated with increased mortality. Methods: In this cohort study, we analyzed 1564 patients included in the European Registry on CS (ERCUSYN); 1045 (67%) had pituitary-dependent CS, 385 (25%) adrenal-dependent CS, 89 (5%) had an ectopic source and 45 (3%) other causes. The median (IQR) overall follow-up time in ERCUSYN was 2.7 (1.2-5.5) years. Results: Forty-nine patients had died at the time of the analysis; 23 (47%) with pituitary-dependent CS, 6 (12%) with adrenal-dependent CS, 18 (37%) with ectopic CS and two (4%) with CS due to other causes. Of 42 patients whose cause of death was known, 15 (36%) died due to progression of the underlying disease, 13 (31%) due to infections, 7 (17%) due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and 2 due to pulmonary embolism. The commonest cause of death in patients with pituitary-dependent CS and adrenal-dependent CS were infectious diseases (n = 8) and progression of the underlying tumor (n = 10) in patients with ectopic CS. Patients who had died were older and more often males, and had more frequently muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus and ectopic CS, compared to survivors. Of 49 deceased patients, 22 (45%) died within 90 days from start of treatment and 5 (10%) before any treatment was given. The commonest cause of deaths in these 27 patients were infections (n = 10; 37%). In a regression analysis, age, ectopic CS and active disease were independently associated with overall death before and within 90 days from the start of treatment. Conclusion: Mortality rate was highest in patients with ectopic CS. Infectious diseases the commonest cause of death soon after diagnosis, emphasizing the need for careful vigilance at that time, especially in patients presenting with concomitant diabetes mellitus.
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7.
  • Kazakov, Ye O., et al. (författare)
  • Physics and applications of three-ion ICRF scenarios for fusion research
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Physics of Plasmas. - : AMER INST PHYSICS. - 1070-664X .- 1089-7674. ; 28:2
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper summarizes the physical principles behind the novel three-ion scenarios using radio frequency waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). We discuss how to transform mode conversion electron heating into a new flexible ICRF technique for ion cyclotron heating and fast-ion generation in multi-ion species plasmas. The theoretical section provides practical recipes for selecting the plasma composition to realize three-ion ICRF scenarios, including two equivalent possibilities for the choice of resonant absorbers that have been identified. The theoretical findings have been convincingly confirmed by the proof-of-principle experiments in mixed H–D plasmas on the Alcator C-Mod and JET tokamaks, using thermal 3He and fast D ions from neutral beam injection as resonant absorbers. Since 2018, significant progress has been made on the ASDEX Upgrade and JET tokamaks in H–4He and H–D plasmas, guided by the ITER needs. Furthermore, the scenario was also successfully applied in JET D–3He plasmas as a technique to generate fusion-born alpha particles and study effects of fast ions on plasma confinement under ITER-relevant plasma heating conditions. Tuned for the central deposition of ICRF power in a small region in the plasma core of large devices such as JET, three-ion ICRF scenarios are efficient in generating large populations of passing fast ions and modifying the q-profile. Recent experimental and modeling developments have expanded the use of three-ion scenarios from dedicated ICRF studies to a flexible tool with a broad range of different applications in fusion research.
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8.
  • Moiseenko, V. E., et al. (författare)
  • Stellator research at IPP KIPT : Status and prospects
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PROBLEMS OF ATOMIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. - : KHARKOV INST PHYSICS & TECHNOLOGY. - 1562-6016. ; :1, s. 3-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Features of the recent Uragan-2M campaign are reviewed together with some theoretical advances. They include experiments with B4C limiter, studies of various 1. . . 20 kHz oscillations, development of a new in-situ diagnostics for wall conditions, i.e. the thermal desorption probe, the improved numerical model of RF plasma production in stellarators in the ion cyclotron and electron-cyclotron frequency ranges, a new positive-definite form of time-harmonic Maxwell's equations and plasma start-up studies.
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9.
  • Nocente, M., et al. (författare)
  • Generation and observation of fast deuterium ions and fusion-born alpha particles in JET D-He-3 plasmas with the 3-ion radio-frequency heating scenario
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 60:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dedicated experiments to generate energetic D ions and D-(3) He fusion-born alpha particles were performed at the Joint European Torus (JET) with the ITER-like wall (ILW). Using the 3-ion D-(D-NBI)-(3) He radio frequency (RF) heating scenario, deuterium ions from neutral beam injection (NBI) were accelerated in the core of mixed D-(3) He plasmas to higher energies with ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) waves, in turn leading to a core-localized source of alpha particles. The fast-ion distribution of RF-accelerated D-NBI ions was controlled by varying the ICRF and NBI power (P-ICRF approximate to 4-6 MW, P-NBI approximate to 3-20 MW), resulting in rather high D-D neutron (approximate to 1x10(16) s(-1)) and D-(3) He alpha rates (approximate to 2x10(16) s(-1)) at moderate input heating power. Theory and TRANSP analysis shows that large populations of co-passing MeV-range D ions were generated using the D-(D-NBI)-(3) He 3-ion ICRF scenario. This important result is corroborated by several experimental observations, in particular gamma-ray measurements. The developed experimental scenario at JET provides unique conditions for probing several aspects of future burning plasmas, such as the contribution from MeV range ions to global confinement, but without introducing tritium. Dominant fast-ion core electron heating with T-i approximate to T-e and a rich variety of fast-ion driven Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) were observed in these D-(3) He plasmas. The observed AE activities do not have a detrimental effect on the thermal confinement and, in some cases, may be driven by the fusion born alpha particles. A strong continuous increase in neutron rate was observed during long-period sawteeth (>1 s), accompanied by the observation of reversed shear AEs, which implies that a non monotonic q profile was systematically developed in these plasmas, sustained by the large fast-ion populations generated by the 3-ion ICRF scenario.
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10.
  • Moiseenko, Vladimir, et al. (författare)
  • Fast wave heating in a mirror during plasma build-up
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal D. - 1434-6060 .- 1434-6079. ; 56:3, s. 359-367
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A heating method for partially ionized plasma has been described in reference [V.E. Moiseenko, Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 12, 427 (1986)]. It exploits the collisional damping of fast waves that is large owing to the high rate of charge exchange collisions. Since the time of heating is limited by the duration of neutral gas ionization, the heating needs to be strong enough to achieve a high final ion temperature. This heating method has been studied numerically in the framework of MHD-like (magneto-hydrodynamic) equations in inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma. The influences of the ratio of the mean free path of the neutral atoms to the plasma radius, the initial ion concentration, the characteristics of the interaction of the neutral atoms with the chamber wall and other parameters on the plasma heating dynamics are examined. A scenario for RF plasma heating in one central cell of the multi-mirror device GOL3 (Novosibirsk, Russia) is developed, in which the final ion temperature exceeds the ion oscillation energy in the RF field by one order of magnitude. The energy efficiency is high; only a small portion of the power is transferred by the neutral atoms to the chamber wall.
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