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Sökning: WFRF:(Drzezga Alexander)

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1.
  • Bos, Isabelle, et al. (författare)
  • The frequency and influence of dementia risk factors in prodromal Alzheimer's disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 56, s. 33-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated whether dementia risk factors were associated with prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to the International Working Group-2 and National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria, and with cognitive decline. A total of 1394 subjects with mild cognitive impairment from 14 different studies were classified according to these research criteria, based on cognitive performance and biomarkers. We compared the frequency of 10 risk factors between the subgroups, and used Cox-regression to examine the effect of risk factors on cognitive decline. Depression, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia occurred more often in individuals with low-AD-likelihood, compared with those with a high-AD-likelihood. Only alcohol use increased the risk of cognitive decline, regardless of AD pathology. These results suggest that traditional risk factors for AD are not associated with prodromal AD or with progression to dementia, among subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Future studies should validate these findings and determine whether risk factors might be of influence at an earlier stage (i.e., preclinical) of AD.
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2.
  • Jansen, Willemijn J, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Cerebral Amyloid-β Aggregation With Cognitive Functioning in Persons Without Dementia.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6238 .- 2168-622X. ; 75:1, s. 84-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early event in Alzheimer disease (AD). Understanding the association between amyloid aggregation and cognitive manifestation in persons without dementia is important for a better understanding of the course of AD and for the design of prevention trials.To investigate whether amyloid-β aggregation is associated with cognitive functioning in persons without dementia.This cross-sectional study included 2908 participants with normal cognition and 4133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from 53 studies in the multicenter Amyloid Biomarker Study. Normal cognition was defined as having no cognitive concerns for which medical help was sought and scores within the normal range on cognitive tests. Mild cognitive impairment was diagnosed according to published criteria. Study inclusion began in 2013 and is ongoing. Data analysis was performed in January 2017.Global cognitive performance as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and episodic memory performance as assessed by a verbal word learning test. Amyloid aggregation was measured with positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and dichotomized as negative (normal) or positive (abnormal) according to study-specific cutoffs. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between amyloid aggregation and low cognitive scores (MMSE score ≤27 or memory z score≤-1.28) and to assess whether this association was moderated by age, sex, educational level, or apolipoprotein E genotype.Among 2908 persons with normal cognition (mean [SD] age, 67.4 [12.8] years), amyloid positivity was associated with low memory scores after age 70 years (mean difference in amyloid positive vs negative, 4% [95% CI, 0%-7%] at 72 years and 21% [95% CI, 10%-33%] at 90 years) but was not associated with low MMSE scores (mean difference, 3% [95% CI, -1% to 6%], P = .16). Among 4133 patients with MCI (mean [SD] age, 70.2 [8.5] years), amyloid positivity was associated with low memory (mean difference, 16% [95% CI, 12%-20%], P < .001) and low MMSE (mean difference, 14% [95% CI, 12%-17%], P < .001) scores, and this association decreased with age. Low cognitive scores had limited utility for screening of amyloid positivity in persons with normal cognition and those with MCI. In persons with normal cognition, the age-related increase in low memory score paralleled the age-related increase in amyloid positivity with an intervening period of 10 to 15 years.Although low memory scores are an early marker of amyloid positivity, their value as a screening measure for early AD among persons without dementia is limited.
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3.
  • Altomare, Daniele, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic value of Alzheimer's biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment : the effect of age at onset
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology. - : SPRINGER HEIDELBERG. - 0340-5354 .- 1432-1459. ; 266:10, s. 2535-2545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The aim of this study is to assess the impact of age at onset on the prognostic value of Alzheimer's biomarkers in a large sample of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods We measured A beta 42, t-tau, hippocampal volume on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cortical metabolism on fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in 188 MCI patients followed for at least 1 year. We categorised patients into earlier and later onset (EO/LO). Receiver operating characteristic curves and corresponding areas under the curve (AUCs) were performed to assess and compar the biomarker prognostic performances in EO and LO groups. Linear Model was adopted for estimating the time-to-progression in relation with earlier/later onset MCI groups and biomarkers. Results In earlier onset patients, all the assessed biomarkers were able to predict cognitive decline (p < 0.05), with FDG-PET showing the best performance. In later onset patients, all biomarkers but t-tau predicted cognitive decline (p < 0.05). Moreover, FDG-PET alone in earlier onset patients showed a higher prognostic value than the one resulting from the combination of all the biomarkers in later onset patients (earlier onset AUC 0.935 vs later onset AUC 0.753, p < 0.001). Finally, FDG-PET showed a different prognostic value between earlier and later onset patients (p = 0.040) in time-to-progression allowing an estimate of the time free from disease. Discussion FDG-PET may represent the most universal tool for the establishment of a prognosis in MCI patients and may be used for obtaining an onset-related estimate of the time free from disease.
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4.
  • Caroli, A., et al. (författare)
  • Mild cognitive impairment with suspected nonamyloid pathology (SNAP) Prediction of progression
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 84:5, s. 508-515
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives:The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of progressive cognitive deterioration in patients with suspected non-Alzheimer disease pathology (SNAP) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI).Methods:We measured markers of amyloid pathology (CSF -amyloid 42) and neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume on MRI and cortical metabolism on [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET) in 201 patients with MCI clinically followed for up to 6 years to detect progressive cognitive deterioration. We categorized patients with MCI as A+/A- and N+/N- based on presence/absence of amyloid pathology and neurodegeneration. SNAPs were A-N+ cases.Results:The proportion of progressors was 11% (8/41), 34% (14/41), 56% (19/34), and 71% (60/85) in A-N-, A+N-, SNAP, and A+N+, respectively; the proportion of APOE epsilon 4 carriers was 29%, 70%, 31%, and 71%, respectively, with the SNAP group featuring a significantly different proportion than both A+N- and A+N+ groups (p 0.005). Hypometabolism in SNAP patients was comparable to A+N+ patients (p = 0.154), while hippocampal atrophy was more severe in SNAP patients (p = 0.002). Compared with A-N-, SNAP and A+N+ patients had significant risk of progressive cognitive deterioration (hazard ratio = 2.7 and 3.8, p = 0.016 and p < 0.001), while A+N- patients did not (hazard ratio = 1.13, p = 0.771). In A+N- and A+N+ groups, none of the biomarkers predicted time to progression. In the SNAP group, lower time to progression was correlated with greater hypometabolism (r = 0.42, p = 0.073).Conclusions:Our findings support the notion that patients with SNAP MCI feature a specific risk progression profile.
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5.
  • Chételat, Gaël, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid-PET and 18F-FDG-PET in the diagnostic investigation of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 19:11, s. 951-962
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Various biomarkers are available to support the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases in clinical and research settings. Among the molecular imaging biomarkers, amyloid-PET, which assesses brain amyloid deposition, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET, which assesses glucose metabolism, provide valuable and complementary information. However, uncertainty remains regarding the optimal timepoint, combination, and an order in which these PET biomarkers should be used in diagnostic evaluations because conclusive evidence is missing. Following an expert panel discussion, we reached an agreement on the specific use of the individual biomarkers, based on available evidence and clinical expertise. We propose a diagnostic algorithm with optimal timepoints for these PET biomarkers, also taking into account evidence from other biomarkers, for early and differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases that can lead to dementia. We propose three main diagnostic pathways with distinct biomarker sequences, in which amyloid-PET and 18F-FDG-PET are placed at different positions in the order of diagnostic evaluations, depending on clinical presentation. We hope that this algorithm can support diagnostic decision making in specialist clinical settings with access to these biomarkers and might stimulate further research towards optimal diagnostic strategies.
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6.
  • Jansen, Willemijn J, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology in persons without dementia: a meta-analysis.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: JAMA. - : American Medical Association. - 1538-3598 .- 0098-7484. ; 313:19, s. 1924-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies.
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7.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in amyloid β positive subjects across the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 14:7, s. 913-924
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its prevalence is unclear because earlier studies did not require biomarker evidence of amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. Methods: We included 3451 Aβ+ subjects (853 AD-type dementia, 1810 mild cognitive impairment, and 788 cognitively normal). Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess APOE ε4 prevalence in relation to age, sex, education, and geographical location. Results: The APOE ε4 prevalence was 66% in AD-type dementia, 64% in mild cognitive impairment, and 51% in cognitively normal, and it decreased with advancing age in Aβ+ cognitively normal and Aβ+ mild cognitive impairment (P <.05) but not in Aβ+ AD dementia (P =.66). The prevalence was highest in Northern Europe but did not vary by sex or education. Discussion: The APOE ε4 prevalence in AD was higher than that in previous studies, which did not require presence of Aβ pathology. Furthermore, our results highlight disease heterogeneity related to age and geographical location.
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8.
  • Nordberg, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • A European multicentre PET study of fibrillar amyloid in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 40:1, s. 104-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyloid PET tracers have been developed for in vivo detection of brain fibrillar amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To serve as an early biomarker in AD the amyloid PET tracers need to be analysed in multicentre clinical studies. In this study 238 [C-11]Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) datasets from five different European centres were pooled. Of these 238 datasets, 18 were excluded, leaving [C-11]PIB datasets from 97 patients with clinically diagnosed AD (mean age 69 +/- 8 years), 72 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; mean age 67.5 +/- 8 years) and 51 healthy controls (mean age 67.4 +/- 6 years) available for analysis. Of the MCI patients, 64 were longitudinally followed for 28 +/- 15 months. Most participants (175 out of 220) were also tested for apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. [C-11]PIB retention in the neocortical and subcortical brain regions was significantly higher in AD patients than in age-matched controls. Intermediate [C-11]PIB retention was observed in MCI patients, with a bimodal distribution (64 % MCI PIB-positive and 36 % MCI PIB-negative), which was significantly different the pattern in both the AD patients and controls. Higher [C-11]PIB retention was observed in MCI ApoE epsilon 4 carriers compared to non-ApoE epsilon 4 carriers (p < 0.005). Of the MCI PIB-positive patients, 67 % had converted to AD at follow-up while none of the MCI PIB-negative patients converted. This study demonstrated the robustness of [C-11]PIB PET as a marker of neocortical fibrillar amyloid deposition in brain when assessed in a multicentre setting. MCI PIB-positive patients showed more severe memory impairment than MCI PIB-negative patients and progressed to AD at an estimated rate of 25 % per year. None of the MCI PIB-negative patients converted to AD, and thus PIB negativity had a 100 % negative predictive value for progression to AD. This supports the notion that PIB-positive scans in MCI patients are an indicator of prodromal AD.
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9.
  • Sehlin, Dag, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Engineered antibodies : new possibilities for brain PET?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : SPRINGER. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 46:13, s. 2848-2858
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Almost 50 million people worldwide are affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Development of disease-modifying therapies would benefit from reliable, non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers for early diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression, and assessment of therapeutic effects. Traditionally, PET ligands have been based on small molecules that, with the right properties, can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and visualize targets in the brain. Recently a new class of PET ligands based on antibodies have emerged, mainly in applications related to cancer. While antibodies have advantages such as high specificity and affinity, their passage across the BBB is limited. Thus, to be used as brain PET ligands, antibodies need to be modified for active transport into the brain. Here, we review the development of radioligands based on antibodies for visualization of intrabrain targets. We focus on antibodies modified into a bispecific format, with the capacity to undergo transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1)-mediated transcytosis to enter the brain and access pathological proteins, e.g. amyloid-beta. A number of such antibody ligands have been developed, displaying differences in brain uptake, pharmacokinetics, and ability to bind and visualize the target in the brain of transgenic mice. Potential pathological changes related to neurodegeneration, e.g. misfolded proteins and neuroinflammation, are suggested as future targets for this novel type of radioligand. Challenges are also discussed, such as the temporal match of radionuclide half-life with the ligand's pharmacokinetic profile and translation to human use. In conclusion, brain PET imaging using bispecific antibodies, modified for receptor-mediated transcytosis across the BBB, is a promising method for specifically visualizing molecules in the brain that are difficult to target with traditional small molecule ligands.
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