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Sökning: WFRF:(Dusek T.)

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  • Valassi, E., et al. (författare)
  • High mortality within 90 days of diagnosis in patients with Cushing's syndrome: results from the ERCUSYN registry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643. ; 181:5, s. 461-472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) have increased mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes and time of death in a large cohort of patients with CS and to establish factors associated with increased mortality. Methods: In this cohort study, we analyzed 1564 patients included in the European Registry on CS (ERCUSYN); 1045 (67%) had pituitary-dependent CS, 385 (25%) adrenal-dependent CS, 89 (5%) had an ectopic source and 45 (3%) other causes. The median (IQR) overall follow-up time in ERCUSYN was 2.7 (1.2-5.5) years. Results: Forty-nine patients had died at the time of the analysis; 23 (47%) with pituitary-dependent CS, 6 (12%) with adrenal-dependent CS, 18 (37%) with ectopic CS and two (4%) with CS due to other causes. Of 42 patients whose cause of death was known, 15 (36%) died due to progression of the underlying disease, 13 (31%) due to infections, 7 (17%) due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and 2 due to pulmonary embolism. The commonest cause of death in patients with pituitary-dependent CS and adrenal-dependent CS were infectious diseases (n = 8) and progression of the underlying tumor (n = 10) in patients with ectopic CS. Patients who had died were older and more often males, and had more frequently muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus and ectopic CS, compared to survivors. Of 49 deceased patients, 22 (45%) died within 90 days from start of treatment and 5 (10%) before any treatment was given. The commonest cause of deaths in these 27 patients were infections (n = 10; 37%). In a regression analysis, age, ectopic CS and active disease were independently associated with overall death before and within 90 days from the start of treatment. Conclusion: Mortality rate was highest in patients with ectopic CS. Infectious diseases the commonest cause of death soon after diagnosis, emphasizing the need for careful vigilance at that time, especially in patients presenting with concomitant diabetes mellitus.
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  • Snider, J. R., et al. (författare)
  • Intercomparison of cloud condensation nuclei and hygroscopic fraction measurements: Coated soot particles investigated during the LACIS Experiment in November (LExNo)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2156-2202. ; 115, s. 11205-11205
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Four cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) instruments were used to sample size-selected particles prepared at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator facility. Included were two Wyoming static diffusion CCN instruments, the continuous flow instrument built by Droplet Measurement Technologies, and the continuous flow Leipzig instrument. The aerosols were composed of ammonium sulfate, levoglucosan, levoglucosan and soot, and ammonium hydrogen sulfate and soot. Comparisons are made among critical supersaturation values from the CCN instruments and derived from measurements made with a humidified tandem differential mobility system. The comparison is quite encouraging: with few exceptions the reported critical supersaturations agree within known experimental uncertainty limits. Also reported are CCN- and hygroscopicity-based estimates of the soot particles' solute fraction. Relative differences between these are as large as 40%, but an error analysis demonstrates that agreement within experimental uncertainty is achieved. We also analyze data from the Droplet Measurement Technologies and the two Wyoming static diffusion instruments for evidence of size distribution broadening and investigate levoglucosan particle growth kinetics in the Wyoming CCN instrument.
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  • Bower, K. N., et al. (författare)
  • The Great Dun Fell experiment 1995 : An overview
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Research. - : Elsevier. - 0169-8095. ; 50:3-4, s. 151-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During March and April of 1995 a major international field project was conducted at the UMIST field station site on Great Dun Fell in Cumbria, Northern England. The hill cap cloud which frequently envelopes this site was used as a natural flow through reactor to examine the sensitivity of the cloud microphysics to the aerosol entering the cloud and also to investigate the effects of the cloud in changing the aerosol size distribution, chemical composition and associated optical properties. To investigate these processes, detailed measurements of the cloud water chemistry (including the chemistry of sulphur compounds, organic and inorganic oxidised nitrogen and ammonia), cloud microphysics and properties of the aerosol and trace gas concentrations upwind and downwind of the cap cloud were undertaken. It was found that the cloud droplet number was generally strongly correlated to aerosol number concentration, with up to 2000 activated droplets cm-3 being observed in the most polluted conditions. In such conditions it was inferred that hygroscopic organic compounds were important in the activation process. Often, the size distribution of the aerosol was substantially modified by the cloud processing, largely due to the aqueous phase oxidation of S(IV) to sulphate by hydrogen peroxide, but also through the uptake and fixing of gas phase nitric acid as nitrate, increasing the calculated optical scattering of the aerosol substantially (by up to 24%). New particle formation was also observed in the ultrafine aerosol mode (at about 5 nm) downwind of the cap cloud, particularly in conditions of low total aerosol surface area and in the presence of ammonia and HCl gases. This was seen to occur at night as well as during the day via a mechanism which is not yet understood. The implications of these results for parameterising aerosol growth in Global Climate Models are explored.
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  • Dusek, U., et al. (författare)
  • Water uptake by biomass burning aerosol at sub- and supersaturated conditions: closure studies and implications for the role of organics
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7324. ; 11, s. 9519-9532
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigate the CCN activity of freshly emitted biomass burning particles and their hygroscopic growth at a relative humidity (RH) of 85%. The particles were produced in the Mainz combustion laboratory by controlled burning of various wood types. The water uptake at sub- and supersaturations is parameterized by the hygroscopicity parameter, κ (c.f. Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007). For the wood burns, κ is low, generally around 0.06. The main emphasis of this study is a comparison of κ derived from measurements at sub- and supersaturated conditions (κG and κCCN), in order to see whether the water uptake at 85% RH can predict the CCN properties of the biomass burning particles. Differences in κGand κCCN can arise through solution non-idealities, the presence of slightly soluble or surface active compounds, or non-spherical particle shape. We find that κG and κCCN agree within experimental uncertainties (of around 30%) for particle sizes of 100 and 150 nm; only for 50 nm particles is κCCN larger than κG by a factor of 2. The magnitude of this difference and its dependence on particle size is consistent with the presence of surface active organic compounds. These compounds mainly facilitate the CCN activation of small particles, which form the most concentrated solution droplets at the point of activation. The 50 nm particles, however, are only activated at supersaturations higher than 1% and are therefore of minor importance as CCN in ambient clouds. By comparison with the actual chemical composition of the biomass burning particles, we estimate that the hygroscopicity of the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fraction can be represented by a κWSOC value of approximately 0.2. The effective hygroscopicity of a typical wood burning particle can therefore be represented by a linear mixture of an inorganic component with κ ≅ 0.6, a WSOC component with κ ≅ 0.2, and an insoluble component with κ = 0.
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